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Details

Details

  • Name

    Mário Cunha
  • Role

    Senior Researcher
  • Since

    01st February 2018
  • Nationality

    Portugal
  • Contacts

    +351220413317
    mario.cunha@inesctec.pt
023
Publications

2024

A New Approach for Element Characterization of Grapevine Tissue with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Authors
Tosin, R; Monteiro-Silva, F; Martins, R; Cunha, M;

Publication
HORTICULTURAE

Abstract
The determination of grape quality parameters is intricately linked to the mineral composition of the fruit; this relationship is increasingly affected by the impacts of climate change. The conventional chemical methodologies employed for the mineral quantification of grape tissues are expensive and impracticable for widespread commercial applications. This paper utilized Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to analyze the mineral constituents within the skin, pulp, and seeds of two distinct Vitis vinifera cultivars: a white cultivar (Loureiro) and a red cultivar (Vinh & atilde;o). The primary objective was to discriminate the potential variations in the calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and nitrogen (N) concentrations and water content among different grape tissues, explaining their consequential impact on the metabolic constitution of the grapes and, by extension, their influence on various quality parameters. Additionally, the study compared the mineral contents of the white and red grape cultivars across three distinct time points post veraison. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the Loureiro and Vinh & atilde;o cultivars in Ca concentrations across all the dates and tissues and for Mg in the skin and pulp, N in the pulp and seeds, and water content in the skin and pulp. In the Vinh & atilde;o cultivar, Ca differences were found in the pulp across the dates, N in the seeds, and water content in the skin, pulp, and seeds. Comparing the cultivars within tissues, Ca exhibited differences in the pulp, Mg in the skin and pulp, N in the pulp and seeds, and water content in the skin, pulp, and seeds. These findings provide insights into the relationship between the grape mineral and water content, climatic factors, and viticulture practices within a changing climate.

2024

Bi-directional hyperspectral reconstruction of cherry tomato: diagnosis of internal tissues maturation stage and composition

Authors
Tosin, R; Cunha, M; Monteiro-Silva, F; Santos, F; Barroso, T; Martins, R;

Publication
FRONTIERS IN PLANT SCIENCE

Abstract
Introduction: Precision monitoring maturity in climacteric fruits like tomato is crucial for minimising losses within the food supply chain and enhancing pre- and post-harvest production and utilisation. Objectives: This paper introduces an approach to analyse the precision maturation of tomato using hyperspectral tomography-like. Methods: A novel bi-directional spectral reconstruction method is presented, leveraging visible to near-infrared (Vis-NIR) information gathered from tomato spectra and their internal tissues (skin, pulp, and seeds). The study, encompassing 118 tomatoes at various maturation stages, employs a multi-block hierarchical principal component analysis combined with partial least squares for bi-directional reconstruction. The approach involves predicting internal tissue spectra by decomposing the overall tomato spectral information, creating a superset with eight latent variables for each tissue. The reverse process also utilises eight latent variables for reconstructing skin, pulp, and seed spectral data. Results: The reconstruction of the tomato spectra presents a mean absolute percentage error of 30.44 % and 5.37 %, 5.25 % and 6.42 % and Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.85, 0.98, 0.99 and 0.99 for the skin, pulp and seed, respectively. Quality parameters, including soluble solid content (%), chlorophyll (a.u.), lycopene (a.u.), and puncture force (N), were assessed and modelled with PLS with the original and reconstructed datasets, presenting a range of R2 higher than 0.84 in the reconstructed dataset. An empirical demonstration of the tomato maturation in the internal tissues revealed the dynamic of the chlorophyll and lycopene in the different tissues during the maturation process. Conclusion: The proposed approach for inner tomato tissue spectral inference is highly reliable, provides early indications and is easy to operate. This study highlights the potential of Vis-NIR devices in precision fruit maturation assessment, surpassing conventional labour-intensive techniques in cost-effectiveness and efficiency. The implications of this advancement extend to various agronomic and food chain applications, promising substantial improvements in monitoring and enhancing fruit quality. [GRAPHICS] .

2024

Plant Disease Diagnosis Based on Hyperspectral Sensing: Comparative Analysis of Parametric Spectral Vegetation Indices and Nonparametric Gaussian Process Classification Approaches

Authors
Pereira, MR; Verrelst, J; Tosin, R; Caicedo, JPR; Tavares, F; dos Santos, FN; Cunha, M;

Publication
AGRONOMY-BASEL

Abstract
Early and accurate disease diagnosis is pivotal for effective phytosanitary management strategies in agriculture. Hyperspectral sensing has emerged as a promising tool for early disease detection, yet challenges remain in effectively harnessing its potential. This study compares parametric spectral Vegetation Indices (VIs) and a nonparametric Gaussian Process Classification based on an Automated Spectral Band Analysis Tool (GPC-BAT) for diagnosing plant bacterial diseases using hyperspectral data. The study conducted experiments on tomato plants in controlled conditions and kiwi plants in field settings to assess the performance of VIs and GPC-BAT. In the tomato experiment, the modeling processes were applied to classify the spectral data measured on the healthy class of plants (sprayed with water only) and discriminate them from the data captured on plants inoculated with the two bacterial suspensions (108 CFU mL-1). In the kiwi experiment, the standard modeling results of the spectral data collected on nonsymptomatic plants were compared to the ones obtained using symptomatic plants' spectral data. VIs, known for their simplicity in extracting biophysical information, successfully distinguished healthy and diseased tissues in both plant species. The overall accuracy achieved was 63% and 71% for tomato and kiwi, respectively. Limitations were observed, particularly in differentiating specific disease infections accurately. On the other hand, GPC-BAT, after feature reduction, showcased enhanced accuracy in identifying healthy and diseased tissues. The overall accuracy ranged from 70% to 75% in the tomato and kiwi case studies. Despite its effectiveness, the model faced challenges in accurately predicting certain disease infections, especially in the early stages. Comparative analysis revealed commonalities and differences in the spectral bands identified by both approaches, with overlaps in critical regions across plant species. Notably, these spectral regions corresponded to the absorption regions of various photosynthetic pigments and structural components affected by bacterial infections in plant leaves. The study underscores the potential of hyperspectral sensing in disease diagnosis and highlights the strengths and limitations of VIs and GPC-BAT. The identified spectral features hold biological significance, suggesting correlations between bacterial infections and alterations in plant pigments and structural components. Future research avenues could focus on refining these approaches for improved accuracy in diagnosing diverse plant-pathogen interactions, thereby aiding disease diagnosis. Specifically, efforts could be directed towards adapting these methodologies for early detection, even before symptom manifestation, to better manage agricultural diseases.

2024

Remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture content in Atlantic humid mountains with Sentinel-1 and 2 satellite sensor data

Authors
Monteiro, T; Arenas Castro, S; Punalekar, M; Cunha, M; Mendes, I; Giamberini, M; Marques da Costa, E; Fava, F; Lucas, R;

Publication
Ecological Indicators

Abstract
The satellite monitoring of vegetation moisture content (VMC) and soil moisture content (SMC) in Southern European Atlantic mountains remains poorly understood but is a fundamental tool to better manage landscape moisture dynamics under climate change. In the Atlantic humid mountains of Portugal, we investigated an empirical model incorporating satellite (Sentinel-1 radar, S1; Sentinel-2 optical, S2) and ancillary predictors (topography and vegetation cover type) to monitor VMC (%) and SMC (%). Predictors derived from the S1 (VV, HH and VV/HH) and S2 (NDVI and NDMI) are compared to field measurements of VMC (n = 48) and SMC (n = 48) obtained during the early, mid and end of summer. Linear regression modelling was applied to uncover the feasibility of a landscape model for VMC and SMC, the role of vegetation type models (i.e. native forest, grasslands and shrubland) to enhance predictive capacity and the seasonal variation in the relationships between satellite predictors and VMC and SMC. Results revealed a significant but weak relationship between VMC and predictors at landscape level (R2 = 0.30, RMSEcv = 69.9 %) with S2_NDMI and vegetation cover type being the only significant predictors. The relationship improves in vegetation type models for grasslands (R2 = 0.35, RMSEcv = 95.0 % with S2_NDVI) and shrublands conditions (R2 = 0.52, RMSEcv = 45.3 %). A model incorporating S2_NDVI and S1_VV explained 52 % of the variation in VMC in shrublands. The relationship between SMC and satellite predictors at the landscape level was also weak, with only the S2_NDMI and vegetation cover type exhibiting a significant relationship (R2 = 0.28, RMSEcv = 18.9 %). Vegetation type models found significant associations with SMC only in shrublands (R2 = 0.31, RMSEcv = 9.03 %) based on the S2_NDMI and S1_VV/VH ratio. The seasonal analysis revealed however that predictors associated to VMC and SMC may vary over the summer. The relationships with VMC were stronger in the early summer (R2 = 0.31, RMSEcv = 90.1 %; based on S2_NDMI) and mid (R2 = 0.37, RMSEcv = 70.8 %; based on S2_NDVI), butnon-significant in the end of summer. Similar pattern was found for SMC, where the link with predictors decreases from the early summer (R2 = 0.33, RMSEcv = 16.0 %; based on S1_VH) and mid summer (R2 = 0.30, RMSEcv = 17.8 %; based on S2_NDMI) to the end of summer (non-significant). Overall, the hypothesis of a universal landscape model for VMC and SMC was not fully supported. Vegetation type models showed promise, particularly for VMC in shrubland conditions. Sentinel optical and radar data were the most significant predictors in all models, despite the inclusion of ancillary predictors. S2_NDVI, S2_NDMI, S1_VV and S1_VV/VH ratio were the most relevant predictors for VMC and, to a lesser extent, SMC. Future research should quantify misregistration effects using plot vs. moving window values for the satellite predictors, consider meteorological control factors, and enhance sampling to overcome a main limitation of our study, small sample size. © 2024

2023

Toward Grapevine Digital Ampelometry Through Vision Deep Learning Models

Authors
Magalhaes, SC; Castro, L; Rodrigues, L; Padilha, TC; de Carvalho, F; dos Santos, FN; Pinho, T; Moreira, G; Cunha, J; Cunha, M; Silva, P; Moreira, AP;

Publication
IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL

Abstract
Several thousand grapevine varieties exist, with even more naming identifiers. Adequate specialized labor is not available for proper classification or identification of grapevines, making the value of commercial vines uncertain. Traditional methods, such as genetic analysis or ampelometry, are time-consuming, expensive, and often require expert skills that are even rarer. New vision-based systems benefit from advanced and innovative technology and can be used by nonexperts in ampelometry. To this end, deep learning (DL) and machine learning (ML) approaches have been successfully applied for classification purposes. This work extends the state of the art by applying digital ampelometry techniques to larger grapevine varieties. We benchmarked MobileNet v2, ResNet-34, and VGG-11-BN DL classifiers to assess their ability for digital ampelography. In our experiment, all the models could identify the vines' varieties through the leaf with a weighted F1 score higher than 92%.

Supervised
thesis

2023

Previsão do teor de sólidos solúveis totais dos bagos da videira em viticultura de precisão: Sensores proximais hiperespectrais e algoritmos computacionais

Author
Maria João dos Santos Campos

Institution
UP-FCUP

2023

Artificial Intelligence and Computer Vision as a Cognitive Tool for Precision Agriculture Applications

Author
Germano Filipe da Silva Moreira

Institution
UP-FCUP

2023

Digital Twins for Precision Agriculture - Assimilation of Digital Phenotyping. Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

Author
Leandro de Almeida Rodrigues

Institution
UP-FCUP

2023

Advanced methodologies for the diagnosis of agronomic processes based on systems biology for precision agriculture

Author
Renan Tosin

Institution
UP-FCUP

2023

OmicSense: Optical sensors for integration of multi-omics and physiological phenotyping within a holistic field-phenomics approach to improve precision viticulture

Author
Igor Godinho Portis

Institution
UP-FCUP