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Publications

2021

Assessing predawn leaf water potential based on hyperspectral data and pigment’s concentration of Vitis vinifera L. in the Douro Wine Region

Authors
Tosin, R; Pocas, I; Novo, H; Teixeira, J; Fontes, N; Graca, A; Cunha, M;

Publication
Scientia Horticulturae

Abstract

2021

Assessing the performance of different OBIA software approaches for mapping invasive alien plants along roads with remote sensing data

Authors
Lourenco, P; Teodoro, AC; Goncalves, JA; Honrado, JP; Cunha, M; Sillero, N;

Publication
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATION AND GEOINFORMATION

Abstract
Roads and roadsides provide dispersal channels for non-native invasive alien plants (IAP), many of which hold devastating impacts in the economy, human health, biodiversity and ecosystem functionality. Remote sensing is an essential tool for efficiently assessing and monitoring the dynamics of IAP along roads. In this study, we explore the potentialities of object based image analysis (OBIA) approach to map several invasive plant species along roads using very high spatial resolution imagery. We compared the performance of OBIA approaches implemented in one open source software (OTB/Monteverdi) against those available in two proprietary pro-grams (eCognition and ArcGIS). We analysed the images by two sequential processes. First, we obtained a land-cover map for 15 study sites by segmenting the images with the algorithms Mean Shift Segmentation (MSS) and Multiresolution Segmentation (MRS), and by classifying the segmented images with the algorithms Support Vector Machine (SVM), Nearest Neighbour Classifier (NNC) and Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC). We created a mask using the polygons classified as non-vegetation to crop the images of the 15 study sites. Second, we repeated the previous segmentation and classification steps over the 15 masked images of vegetated areas using the same algorithms. OTB/Monteverdi, with MSS and SVM algorithms, showed to be a good software for land-cover mapping (OA = 87.0%), as well as ArcGIS, with MSS and MLC algorithms (OA = 84.3%). However, these two programs, using the same segmentation algorithms, did not achieve good accuracy results when mapping IAP species (OA(OTB/Monteverdi) = 63.3%; OAA(cos = 45.7%). eCognition, with MRS and NNC algorithms, reached better classification results in both land-cover and IAP maps (OA(Land-cover )= 95.7%; OA(Invasive-plant )= 92.8%). 'Bare soil' and 'Road', and 'A. donax' were the classes with best and worst overall accuracy, respectively, when mapping land-cover classes in the three programs. 'Other trees' was the class with the most accurate and significant differences in the three programs when mapping IAP species. The separation of each invasive species should be improved with a phenology-based design of field surveys. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of sequential segmentation and classification of RS data for mapping and monitoring plant invasions along linear infrastructures, which allows to reduce the time, cost and hazard of extensive field campaigns along roadsides.

2021

A Framework for Multi-Dimensional Assessment of Wildfire Disturbance Severity from Remotely Sensed Ecosystem Functioning Attributes

Authors
Marcos, B; Goncalves, J; Alcaraz Segura, D; Cunha, M; Honrado, JP;

Publication
REMOTE SENSING

Abstract
Wildfire disturbances can cause modifications in different dimensions of ecosystem functioning, i.e., the flows of matter and energy. There is an increasing need for methods to assess such changes, as functional approaches offer advantages over those focused solely on structural or compositional attributes. In this regard, remote sensing can support indicators for estimating a wide variety of effects of fire on ecosystem functioning, beyond burn severity assessment. These indicators can be described using intra-annual metrics of quantity, seasonality, and timing, called Ecosystem Functioning Attributes (EFAs). Here, we propose a satellite-based framework to evaluate the impacts, at short to medium term (i.e., from the year of fire to the second year after), of wildfires on four dimensions of ecosystem functioning: (i) primary productivity, (ii) vegetation water content, (iii) albedo, and (iv) sensible heat. We illustrated our approach by comparing inter-annual anomalies in satellite-based EFAs in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula, from 2000 to 2018. Random Forest models were used to assess the ability of EFAs to discriminate burned vs. unburned areas and to rank the predictive importance of EFAs. Together with effect sizes, this ranking was used to select a parsimonious set of indicators for analyzing the main effects of wildfire disturbances on ecosystem functioning, for both the whole study area (i.e., regional scale), as well as for four selected burned patches with different environmental conditions (i.e., local scale). With both high accuracies (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) > 0.98) and effect sizes (Cohen's |d| > 0.8), we found important effects on all four dimensions, especially on primary productivity and sensible heat, with the best performance for quantity metrics. Different spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire severity across the selected burned patches for different dimensions further highlighted the importance of considering the multi-dimensional effects of wildfire disturbances on key aspects of ecosystem functioning at different timeframes, which allowed us to diagnose both abrupt and lagged effects. Finally, we discuss the applicability as well as the potential advantages of the proposed approach for more comprehensive assessments of fire severity.

2020

Toward a generalized predictive model of grapevine water status in Douro region from hyperspectral data

Authors
Pocas, I; Tosin, R; Goncalves, I; Cunha, M;

Publication
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

Abstract
The predawn leaf water potential (?pd) is an eco-physiological indicator widely used for assessing vines water status and thus supporting irrigation management in several wine regions worldwide. However, the ?pd is measured in a short time period before sunrise and the collection of a large sample of points is necessary to adequately represent a vineyard, which constitute operational constraints. In the present study, an alternative method based on hyperspectral data derived from a handheld spectroradiometer and machine learning algorithms was tested and validated for assessing grapevine water status. Two test sites in Douro wine region, integrating three grapevine cultivars, were studied for the years of 2014, 2015, and 2017. Four machine learning regression algorithms were tested for predicting the ?pd as a continuous variable, namely Random Forest (RF), Bagging Trees (BT), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), and Variational Heteroscedastic Gaussian Process Regression (VH-GPR). Three predicting variables, including two vegetation indices (NRI554,561 and WI900,970) and a time-dynamic variable based on the ?pd (?pd_0), were applied for modelling the response variable (?pd). Additionally, the predicted values of ?pd were aggregated into three classes representing different levels of water deficit (low, moderate, and high) and compared with the corresponding classes of ?pd observed values. A root mean square error (RMSE) and a mean absolute error (MAE) lower or equal than 0.15 MPa and 0.12 MPa, respectively, were obtained with an external validation data set (n = 71 observations) for the various algorithms. When the modelling results were assessed through classes of values, a high overall accuracy was obtained for all the algorithms (82–83%), with prediction accuracy by class ranging between 79% and 100%. These results show a good performance of the predictive models, which considered a large variability of climatic, environmental, and agronomic conditions, and included various grape cultivars. By predicting both continuous values of ?pd and classes of ?pd, the approach presented in this study allowed obtaining 2-levels of accurate information about vines water status, which can be used to feed management decisions of different types of stakeholders. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

2020

Estimation of grapevine predawn leaf water potential based on hyperspectral reflectance data in Douro wine region

Authors
Tosin, R; Pocas, I; Goncalves, I; Cunha, M;

Publication
VITIS

Abstract
Hyperspectral data collected through a handheld spectroradiometer (400-1010 nm) were tested for assessing the grapevine predawn leaf water potential (psi(pd)) measured by a Scholander chamber in two test sites of Douro wine region. The study was implemented in 2017, being a year with very hot and dry summer, conditions prone to severe water shortage. Three grapevine cultivars, 'Touriga Nacional', 'Touriga Franca' and 'Tinta Barroca' were sampled both in rainfed and irrigated vineyards, with a total of 325 plants assessed in four post-flowering dates. A large set of vegetation indices computed with the hyperspectral data and optimized for the psi(pd) values, as well as structural variables, were used as predictors in the model. From a total of 631 possible predictors, four variables were selected based on a stepwise forward procedure and the Wald statistics: irrigation treatment, test site, Anthocyanin Reflectance Index Optimized (ARI(opt_656,647)) and Normalized Ratio Index (NRI711,700). An ordinal logistic regression model was calibrated using 70 % of the dataset randomly selected and the 30 of the remaining observations where used in model validation. The overall model accuracy obtained with the validation dataset was 73.2 %, with the class of psi(pd) corresponding to the high-water deficit presenting a positive prediction value of 79.3 %. The accuracy and operability of this predictive model indicates good perspectives for its use in the monitoring of grapevine water status, and to support the irrigation tasks.

Supervised
thesis

2020

Statistical and physically based hyperspectral and multispectral reflectance modelling for agricultural monitoring: a case study in Vilankulo, Mozambique

Author
Sosdito Estevão Mananze

Institution
UP-FCUP

2020

Produção de lúpulo nacional: uma estratégia para a sustentabilidade

Author
Sandra Cristina Pereira Afonso

Institution
UP-FCUP

2020

Advanced methodologies for the diagnosis of agronomic processes based on systems biology forprecision agriculture

Author
Renan Tosin

Institution
UP-FCUP

2020

Mapeamento das características biofísicas da cultura da actinídea através da reflectância espectral detetada com satélites de observação da Terra

Author
Sérgio Duarte Moreira Fernandes

Institution
UP-FCUP

2020

Integração de técnicas de deteção remota em sistemas de informação geográfica para mapeamento espáciotemporal da produção de vinho na Região Demarcada do Douro

Author
Pedro Manuel de Carvalho Barbosa Moreira

Institution
UP-FCUP