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Publications

2022

Benchmark of Deep Learning and a Proposed HSV Colour Space Models for the Detection and Classification of Greenhouse Tomato

Authors
Moreira, G; Magalhaes, SA; Pinho, T; dos Santos, FN; Cunha, M;

Publication
AGRONOMY-BASEL

Abstract
The harvesting operation is a recurring task in the production of any crop, thus making it an excellent candidate for automation. In protected horticulture, one of the crops with high added value is tomatoes. However, its robotic harvesting is still far from maturity. That said, the development of an accurate fruit detection system is a crucial step towards achieving fully automated robotic harvesting. Deep Learning (DL) and detection frameworks like Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) or You Only Look Once (YOLO) are more robust and accurate alternatives with better response to highly complex scenarios. The use of DL can be easily used to detect tomatoes, but when their classification is intended, the task becomes harsh, demanding a huge amount of data. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of DL models (SSD MobileNet v2 and YOLOv4) to efficiently detect the tomatoes and compare those systems with a proposed histogram-based HSV colour space model to classify each tomato and determine its ripening stage, through two image datasets acquired. Regarding detection, both models obtained promising results, with the YOLOv4 model standing out with an F1-Score of 85.81%. For classification task the YOLOv4 was again the best model with an Macro F1-Score of 74.16%. The HSV colour space model outperformed the SSD MobileNet v2 model, obtaining results similar to the YOLOv4 model, with a Balanced Accuracy of 68.10%.

2022

Active Perception Fruit Harvesting Robots - A Systematic Review

Authors
Magalhaes, SA; Moreira, AP; dos Santos, FN; Dias, J;

Publication
JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT & ROBOTIC SYSTEMS

Abstract

2022

End-Effectors for Harvesting Manipulators - State Of The Art Review

Authors
Oliveira, F; Tinoco, V; Magalhaes, S; Santos, FN; Silva, MF;

Publication
2022 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AUTONOMOUS ROBOT SYSTEMS AND COMPETITIONS (ICARSC)

Abstract

2022

An overview of pruning and harvesting manipulators

Authors
Tinoco, V; Silva, MF; Santos, FN; Valente, A; Rocha, LF; Magalhaes, SA; Santos, LC;

Publication
INDUSTRIAL ROBOT-THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBOTICS RESEARCH AND APPLICATION

Abstract
Purpose The motivation for robotics research in the agricultural field has sparked in consequence of the increasing world population and decreasing agricultural labor availability. This paper aims to analyze the state of the art of pruning and harvesting manipulators used in agriculture. Design/methodology/approach A research was performed on papers that corresponded to specific keywords. Ten papers were selected based on a set of attributes that made them adequate for review. Findings The pruning manipulators were used in two different scenarios: grapevines and apple trees. These manipulators showed that a light-controlled environment could reduce visual errors and that prismatic joints on the manipulator are advantageous to obtain a higher reach. The harvesting manipulators were used for three types of fruits: strawberries, tomatoes and apples. These manipulators revealed that different kinematic configurations are required for different kinds of end-effectors, as some of these tools only require movement in the horizontal axis and others are required to reach the target with a broad range of orientations. Originality/value This work serves to reduce the gap in the literature regarding agricultural manipulators and will support new developments of novel solutions related to agricultural robotic grasping and manipulation.

2021

A Review of Pruning and Harvesting Manipulators

Authors
Tinoco, V; Silva, MF; Santos, FN; Rocha, LF; Magalhaes, S; Santos, LC;

Publication
2021 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AUTONOMOUS ROBOT SYSTEMS AND COMPETITIONS (ICARSC)

Abstract