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Publications

2022

Benchmark of Deep Learning and a Proposed HSV Colour Space Models for the Detection and Classification of Greenhouse Tomato

Authors
Moreira, G; Magalhaes, SA; Pinho, T; dos Santos, FN; Cunha, M;

Publication
Agronomy

Abstract
The harvesting operation is a recurring task in the production of any crop, thus making it an excellent candidate for automation. In protected horticulture, one of the crops with high added value is tomatoes. However, its robotic harvesting is still far from maturity. That said, the development of an accurate fruit detection system is a crucial step towards achieving fully automated robotic harvesting. Deep Learning (DL) and detection frameworks like Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) or You Only Look Once (YOLO) are more robust and accurate alternatives with better response to highly complex scenarios. The use of DL can be easily used to detect tomatoes, but when their classification is intended, the task becomes harsh, demanding a huge amount of data. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of DL models (SSD MobileNet v2 and YOLOv4) to efficiently detect the tomatoes and compare those systems with a proposed histogram-based HSV colour space model to classify each tomato and determine its ripening stage, through two image datasets acquired. Regarding detection, both models obtained promising results, with the YOLOv4 model standing out with an F1-Score of 85.81%. For classification task the YOLOv4 was again the best model with an Macro F1-Score of 74.16%. The HSV colour space model outperformed the SSD MobileNet v2 model, obtaining results similar to the YOLOv4 model, with a Balanced Accuracy of 68.10%.

2021

A Review of Pruning and Harvesting Manipulators

Authors
Tinoco, V; Silva, MF; Santos, FN; Rocha, LF; Magalhaes, S; Santos, LC;

Publication
2021 IEEE International Conference on Autonomous Robot Systems and Competitions (ICARSC)

Abstract

2021

Evaluating the Single-Shot MultiBox Detector and YOLO Deep Learning Models for the Detection of Tomatoes in a Greenhouse

Authors
Magalhaes, SA; Castro, L; Moreira, G; dos Santos, FN; Cunha, M; Dias, J; Moreira, AP;

Publication
Sensors

Abstract
The development of robotic solutions for agriculture requires advanced perception capabilities that can work reliably in any crop stage. For example, to automatise the tomato harvesting process in greenhouses, the visual perception system needs to detect the tomato in any life cycle stage (flower to the ripe tomato). The state-of-the-art for visual tomato detection focuses mainly on ripe tomato, which has a distinctive colour from the background. This paper contributes with an annotated visual dataset of green and reddish tomatoes. This kind of dataset is uncommon and not available for research purposes. This will enable further developments in edge artificial intelligence for in situ and in real-time visual tomato detection required for the development of harvesting robots. Considering this dataset, five deep learning models were selected, trained and benchmarked to detect green and reddish tomatoes grown in greenhouses. Considering our robotic platform specifications, only the Single-Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) and YOLO architectures were considered. The results proved that the system can detect green and reddish tomatoes, even those occluded by leaves. SSD MobileNet v2 had the best performance when compared against SSD Inception v2, SSD ResNet 50, SSD ResNet 101 and YOLOv4 Tiny, reaching an F1-score of 66.15, an mAP of 51.46 and an inference time of 16.44ms with the NVIDIA Turing Architecture platform, an NVIDIA Tesla T4, with 12 GB. YOLOv4 Tiny also had impressive results, mainly concerning inferring times of about 5ms.

2021

Cost-Effective 4DoF Manipulator for General Applications

Authors
Magalhães, SA; Moreira, AP; dos Santos, FN; Dias, J; Santos, L;

Publication
Intelligent Systems and Applications - Proceedings of the 2021 Intelligent Systems Conference, IntelliSys 2021, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2-3 September, 2021, Volume 3

Abstract

2021

Tomato Detection Using Deep Learning for Robotics Application

Authors
Padilha, TC; Moreira, G; Magalhaes, SA; dos Santos, FN; Cunha, M; Oliveira, M;

Publication
Progress in Artificial Intelligence - Lecture Notes in Computer Science

Abstract