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About

About

I was born in the district of Porto. I got a degree in Eletric and Computer Engeneering in 2001, a Master degre in Networks and Communication Services in 2004 and the PhD degree in Eletric and COmputer Engeneering in 2012, all from the Faculty of Engeneering of the University of Porto. I've been a collaborator of INESC TEC since 2001 and I'm currently a Senior Researcher at the Center of Telecommunications and Multimedia. I'm also an Invited Adjunct Professor at the School f Engeneering of the Polythecnic Institute of Porto. My current reseach interests include image and video processing, multimedia systems and computer vision. 

Interest
Topics
Details

Details

  • Name

    Pedro Miguel Carvalho
  • Role

    Senior Researcher
  • Since

    01st September 2001
012
Publications

2023

Benchmarking edge computing devices for grape bunches and trunks detection using accelerated object detection single shot multibox deep learning models

Authors
Magalhaes, SC; dos Santos, FN; Machado, P; Moreira, AP; Dias, J;

Publication
ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Abstract
Purpose: Visual perception enables robots to perceive the environment. Visual data is processed using computer vision algorithms that are usually time-expensive and require powerful devices to process the visual data in real-time, which is unfeasible for open-field robots with limited energy. This work benchmarks the performance of different heterogeneous platforms for object detection in real-time. This research benchmarks three architectures: embedded GPU-Graphical Processing Units (such as NVIDIA Jetson Nano 2 GB and 4 GB, and NVIDIA Jetson TX2), TPU-Tensor Processing Unit (such as Coral Dev Board TPU), and DPU-Deep Learning Processor Unit (such as in AMD-Xilinx ZCU104 Development Board, and AMD-Xilinx Kria KV260 Starter Kit). Methods: The authors used the RetinaNet ResNet-50 fine-tuned using the natural VineSet dataset. After the trained model was converted and compiled for target-specific hardware formats to improve the execution efficiency.Conclusions and Results: The platforms were assessed in terms of performance of the evaluation metrics and efficiency (time of inference). Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) were the slowest devices, running at 3 FPS to 5 FPS, and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) were the fastest devices, running at 14 FPS to 25 FPS. The efficiency of the Tensor Processing Unit (TPU) is irrelevant and similar to NVIDIA Jetson TX2. TPU and GPU are the most power-efficient, consuming about 5 W. The performance differences, in the evaluation metrics, across devices are irrelevant and have an F1 of about 70 % and mean Average Precision (mAP) of about 60 %.

2023

A Review of Recent Advances and Challenges in Grocery Label Detection and Recognition

Authors
Guimaraes, V; Nascimento, J; Viana, P; Carvalho, P;

Publication
APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL

Abstract
When compared with traditional local shops where the customer has a personalised service, in large retail departments, the client has to make his purchase decisions independently, mostly supported by the information available in the package. Additionally, people are becoming more aware of the importance of the food ingredients and demanding about the type of products they buy and the information provided in the package, despite it often being hard to interpret. Big shops such as supermarkets have also introduced important challenges for the retailer due to the large number of different products in the store, heterogeneous affluence and the daily needs of item repositioning. In this scenario, the automatic detection and recognition of products on the shelves or off the shelves has gained increased interest as the application of these technologies may improve the shopping experience through self-assisted shopping apps and autonomous shopping, or even benefit stock management with real-time inventory, automatic shelf monitoring and product tracking. These solutions can also have an important impact on customers with visual impairments. Despite recent developments in computer vision, automatic grocery product recognition is still very challenging, with most works focusing on the detection or recognition of a small number of products, often under controlled conditions. This paper discusses the challenges related to this problem and presents a review of proposed methods for retail product label processing, with a special focus on assisted analysis for customer support, including for the visually impaired. Moreover, it details the public datasets used in this topic and identifies their limitations, and discusses future research directions of related fields.

2023

From a Visual Scene to a Virtual Representation: A Cross-Domain Review

Authors
Pereira, A; Carvalho, P; Pereira, N; Viana, P; Corte-Real, L;

Publication
IEEE ACCESS

Abstract
The widespread use of smartphones and other low-cost equipment as recording devices, the massive growth in bandwidth, and the ever-growing demand for new applications with enhanced capabilities, made visual data a must in several scenarios, including surveillance, sports, retail, entertainment, and intelligent vehicles. Despite significant advances in analyzing and extracting data from images and video, there is a lack of solutions able to analyze and semantically describe the information in the visual scene so that it can be efficiently used and repurposed. Scientific contributions have focused on individual aspects or addressing specific problems and application areas, and no cross-domain solution is available to implement a complete system that enables information passing between cross-cutting algorithms. This paper analyses the problem from an end-to-end perspective, i.e., from the visual scene analysis to the representation of information in a virtual environment, including how the extracted data can be described and stored. A simple processing pipeline is introduced to set up a structure for discussing challenges and opportunities in different steps of the entire process, allowing to identify current gaps in the literature. The work reviews various technologies specifically from the perspective of their applicability to an end-to-end pipeline for scene analysis and synthesis, along with an extensive analysis of datasets for relevant tasks.

2023

Synthesizing Human Activity for Data Generation

Authors
Romero, A; Carvalho, P; Corte-Real, L; Pereira, A;

Publication
JOURNAL OF IMAGING

Abstract
The problem of gathering sufficiently representative data, such as those about human actions, shapes, and facial expressions, is costly and time-consuming and also requires training robust models. This has led to the creation of techniques such as transfer learning or data augmentation. However, these are often insufficient. To address this, we propose a semi-automated mechanism that allows the generation and editing of visual scenes with synthetic humans performing various actions, with features such as background modification and manual adjustments of the 3D avatars to allow users to create data with greater variability. We also propose an evaluation methodology for assessing the results obtained using our method, which is two-fold: (i) the usage of an action classifier on the output data resulting from the mechanism and (ii) the generation of masks of the avatars and the actors to compare them through segmentation. The avatars were robust to occlusion, and their actions were recognizable and accurate to their respective input actors. The results also showed that even though the action classifier concentrates on the pose and movement of the synthetic humans, it strongly depends on contextual information to precisely recognize the actions. Generating the avatars for complex activities also proved problematic for action recognition and the clean and precise formation of the masks.

2022

Streamlining Action Recognition in Autonomous Shared Vehicles with an Audiovisual Cascade Strategy

Authors
Pinto, JR; Carvalho, P; Pinto, C; Sousa, A; Capozzi, L; Cardoso, JS;

Publication
PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION, IMAGING AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS THEORY AND APPLICATIONS (VISAPP), VOL 5

Abstract
With the advent of self-driving cars, and big companies such as Waymo or Bosch pushing forward into fully driverless transportation services, the in-vehicle behaviour of passengers must be monitored to ensure safety and comfort. The use of audio-visual information is attractive by its spatio-temporal richness as well as non-invasive nature, but faces tile likely constraints posed by available hardware and energy consumption. Hence new strategies are required to improve the usage of these scarce resources. We propose the processing of audio and visual data in a cascade pipeline for in-vehicle action recognition. The data is processed by modality-specific sub-modules. with subsequent ones being used when a confident classification is not reached. Experiments show an interesting accuracy-acceleration trade-off when compared with a parallel pipeline with late fusion, presenting potential for industrial applications on embedded devices.

Supervised
thesis

2022

Identification and extraction of floor planes for 3D representation

Author
Carlos Miguel Guerra Soeiro

Institution
UP-FEUP

2022

Monotorização de segurança para sistemas de identificação pessoal digital e móvel baseado em modelos

Author
Diogo Rafael Ferraz Duarte

Institution
UM

2022

Service Design for Information Management

Author
Gonçalo Ornelas Soares

Institution
UP-FEUP

2022

Distributed and Dependable SDS Control Plane for HPC

Author
Mariana Martins de Sá Miranda

Institution
UM

2022

Synthesing Human Activity for Data Generation

Author
Ana Ysabella Rodrigues Romero

Institution
UP-FEUP