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Publications

Publications by Vladimiro Miranda

2015

Advanced Control Solutions for Operating Isolated Power Systems: Examining the Portuguese islands

Authors
Vasconcelos, H; Moreira, C; Madureira, A; Lopes, JP; Miranda, V;

Publication
IEEE Electrification Magazine

Abstract
The operation of remote and isolated or islanded power systems is often very challenging because of their small system inertia. Moreover, economic and environmental pressure has led to an increasing renewable power penetration, particularly in wind generation and solar photovoltaics (PV). Simultaneously, significant technological progress has been made in terms of control capability of grid assets [generators, controllable loads such as electric vehicles (EVs), and energy storage systems], mostly exploiting the capabilities of power ?electronics. In this context, several advanced control solutions can be implemented, supporting and improving the robustness of the operation in terms of fast frequency and voltage control responses. In this article, the Portuguese islands are taken as a case study. Within the Madeira archipelago (Porto Santo and Madeira islands), two approaches were envisioned. For Porto Santo Island, the main goal is the sizing of a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) to avoid frequency stability problems. For Madeira Island, the objective relies on the exploitation of hydro resources through the quantification of the technical benefits resulting from variable speed hydro pumping stations that are able to provide primary frequency regulation services in the pump operation mode. In addition, this article also addresses the benefits of introducing EVs in Flores Island in the Azores Archipelago. Finally, to support the development of innovative technological solutions for this type of power system, a laboratory setup based on scaled test systems was also set up and is described. A set of applications was specifically developed for such autonomous power systems. The laboratorial infrastructure allowed the testing of ?solutions and prototypes for hardware and software modules related to those applications. © 2013 IEEE.

2015

Application of Evolutionary Multiobjective Algorithms for Solving the Problem of Energy Dispatch in Hydroelectric Power Plants

Authors
Marcelino, CG; Carvalho, LM; Almeida, PEM; Wanner, EF; Miranda, V;

Publication
EVOLUTIONARY MULTI-CRITERION OPTIMIZATION, PT II

Abstract
The Brazilian population increase and the purchase power growth have resulted in a widespread use of electric home appliances. Consequently, the demand for electricity has been growing steadily in an average of 5% a year. In this country, electric demand is supplied predominantly by hydro power. Many of the power plants installed do not operate efficiently from water consumption point of view. Energy Dispatch is defined as the allocation of operational values to each turbine inside a power plant to meet some criteria defined by the power plant owner. In this context, an optimal scheduling criterion could be the provision of the greatest amount of electricity with the lowest possible water consumption, i.e. maximization of water use efficiency. Some power plant operators rely on "Normal Mode of Operation" (NMO) as Energy Dispatch criterion. This criterion consists in equally dividing power demand between available turbines regardless whether the allocation represents an efficient good operation point for each turbine. This work proposes a multiobjective approach to solve electric dispatch problem in which the objective functions considered are maximization of hydroelectric productivity function and minimization of the distance between NMO and "Optimized Control Mode" (OCM). Two well-known Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms are used to solve this problem. Practical results have shown water savings in the order of million m(3)/s. In addition, statistical inference has revealed that SPEA2 algorithm is more robust than NSGA-II algorithm to solve this problem.

2015

Coping with Wind Power Uncertainty in Unit Commitment: a Robust Approach using the New Hybrid Metaheuristic DEEPSO

Authors
Pinto, R; Carvalho, LM; Sumaili, J; Pinto, MSS; Miranda, V;

Publication
2015 IEEE EINDHOVEN POWERTECH

Abstract
The uncertainty associated with the increasingly wind power penetration in power systems must be considered when performing the traditional day-ahead scheduling of conventional thermal units. This uncertainty can be represented through a set of representative wind power scenarios that take into account the time-dependency between forecasting errors. To create robust Unit Commitment ( UC) schedules, it is widely seen that all possible wind power scenarios must be used. However, using all realizations of wind power might be a poor approach and important savings in computational effort can be achieved if only the most representative subset is used. In this paper, the new hybrid metaheuristic DEEPSO and clustering techniques are used in the traditional stochastic formulation of the UC problem to investigate the robustness of the UC schedules with increasing number of wind power scenarios. For this purpose, expected values for operational costs, wind spill, and load curtailment for the UC solutions are compared for a didactic 10 generator test system. The obtained results shown that it is possible to reduce the computation burden of the stochastic UC by using a small set of representative wind power scenarios previously selected from a high number of scenarios covering the entire probability distribution function of the forecasting uncertainty.

2016

Fundamentals of the C-DEEPSO Algorithm and its Application to the Reactive Power Optimization of Wind Farms

Authors
Marcelino, CG; Almeida, PEM; Wanner, EF; Carvalho, LM; Miranda, V;

Publication
2016 IEEE CONGRESS ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION (CEC)

Abstract
In this paper, a novel hybrid single-objective metaheuristic, the so called C-DEEPSO (Canonical Differential Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization), is proposed and tested. C-DEEPSO can be viewed as an evolutionary algorithm with recombination rules borrowed from PSO, or a swarm optimization method with selection and self-adaptiveness properties proper from DE. A case study on the problem of optimal control for reactive sources in energy production by Wind Power Plants (WPP), solved by means of Optimal Power Flow (OPF-like), is used to test the new hybrid algorithm and to evaluate its performance. C-DEEPSO is compared to the baseline algorithm, DEEPSO, and to a reference algorithm, Mean-Variance Mapping Optimization (MVMO). The experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm is efficient and competitive, capable to tackle this large-scale problem. The results also show that the new approach exhibits better results, when compared to MVMO.

2015

Statistical Tuning of DEEPSO Soft Constraints in the Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow Problem

Authors
Carvalho, LM; Loureiro, F; Sumaili, J; Keko, H; Miranda, V; Marcelino, CG; Wanner, EF;

Publication
2015 18TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT SYSTEM APPLICATION TO POWER SYSTEMS (ISAP)

Abstract
The optimal solution provided by metaheuristics can be viewed as a random variable, whose behavior depends on the value of the algorithm's strategic parameters and on the type of penalty function used to enforce the problem's soft constraints. This paper reports the use of parametric and non-parametric statistics to compare three different penalty functions implemented to solve the Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow (SCOPF) problem using the new enhanced metaheuristic Differential Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (DEEPSO). To obtain the best performance for the three types of penalty functions, the strategic parameters of DEEPSO are optimized by using an iterative algorithm based on the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that the modeling of soft constraints significantly influences the best achievable performance of the optimization algorithm.

2014

Probabilistic Analysis of Stationary Batteries Performance to Deal with Renewable Variability

Authors
Costa, IC; da Rosa, MA; Carvalho, LM; Soares, FJ; Bremermann, L; Miranda, V;

Publication
2014 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PROBABILISTIC METHODS APPLIED TO POWER SYSTEMS (PMAPS)

Abstract
Stationary batteries are currently seen as an interesting solution to deal with the variability of the renewable energy sources. In the same way as other types of storage, e.g. pumped-hydro units, this new type of storage equipment can improve the use of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Additionally, the stationary batteries location in the grid is not as physically constrained as other storage systems and can be optimally selected to maximize its overall benefits. This paper proposes a new methodology to represent the unique stochastic behavior of stationary batteries while integrated into an electrical power system. This methodology includes not only the technical restrictions of this type of storage system but also how its operation strategy affects its lifetime. The methodology was tested on a small test system, which is based on the IEEE-RTS 79, using sequential Monte Carlo simulation as its core to accurately reproduce the chronology of events of stationary batteries. The results of the simulation are focused on the potential impacts of these storage devices not only in terms of renewable energy used but also in the adequacy of supply.

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