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Publications

Publications by CRAS

2021

Project and Control Allocation of a 3 DoF Autonomous Surface Vessel With Aerial Azimuth Propulsion System

Authors
da Silva, MF; Honorio, LMD; dos Santos, MF; Neto, AFD; Cruz, NA; Matos, ACC; Westin, LGF;

Publication
IEEE ACCESS

Abstract
To gather hydrological measurements is a difficult task for Autonomous Surface Vessels. It is necessary for precise navigation considering underwater obstacles, shallow and fast water flows, and also mitigate misreadings due to disturbs caused by their propulsion system. To deal with those problems, this paper presents a new topology of an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) based on a catamaran boat with an aerial propulsion system with azimuth control. This set generates an over-actuated 3 Degree of Freedom (DoF) ASV, highly maneuverable and able of operating over the above-mentioned situations. To deal with the high computational cost of the over-actuated control allocation (CA) problem, this paper also proposes a Fast CA (FCA) approach. The FCA breaks the initial nonlinear system into partially-dependent linear subsystems. This approach generates smaller connected systems with overlapping solution spaces, generating fast and robust convergence, especially attractive for embedded control devices. Both proposals, i.e., ASV and FCA, are assessed through mathematical simulations and real scenarios.

2021

A Performance Analysis of Feature Extraction Algorithms for Acoustic Image-Based Underwater Navigation

Authors
Oliveira, AJ; Ferreira, BM; Cruz, NA;

Publication
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering

Abstract
In underwater navigation, sonars are useful sensing devices for operation in confined or structured environments, enabling the detection and identification of underwater environmental features through the acquisition of acoustic images. Nonetheless, in these environments, several problems affect their performance, such as background noise and multiple secondary echoes. In recent years, research has been conducted regarding the application of feature extraction algorithms to underwater acoustic images, with the purpose of achieving a robust solution for the detection and matching of environmental features. However, since these algorithms were originally developed for optical image analysis, conclusions in the literature diverge regarding their suitability to acoustic imaging. This article presents a detailed comparison between the SURF (Speeded-Up Robust Features), ORB (Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF), BRISK (Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints), and SURF-Harris algorithms, based on the performance of their feature detection and description procedures, when applied to acoustic data collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle. Several characteristics of the studied algorithms were taken into account, such as feature point distribution, feature detection accuracy, and feature description robustness. A possible adaptation of feature extraction procedures to acoustic imaging is further explored through the implementation of a feature selection module. The performed comparison has also provided evidence that further development of the current feature description methodologies might be required for underwater acoustic image analysis.

2021

Multi-domain inspection of offshore wind farms using an autonomous surface vehicle

Authors
Campos, DF; Matos, A; Pinto, AM;

Publication
SN Applied Sciences

Abstract
AbstractThe offshore wind power industry is an emerging and exponentially growing sector, which calls to a necessity for a cyclical monitoring and inspection to ensure the safety and efficiency of the wind farm facilities. Thus, the emersed (aerial) and immersed (underwater) scenarios must be reconstructed to create a more complete and reliable map that maximizes the observability of all the offshore structures from the wind turbines to the cable arrays, presenting a multi domain scenario.This work proposes the use of an Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) to map both domains simultaneously. As such, it will produce a multi-domain map through the fusion of navigational sensors, GPS and IMU, to localize the vehicle and aid the registration process for the perception sensors, 3D Lidar and Multibeam echosounder sonar. The performed experiments demonstrate the ability of the multi-domain mapping architecture to provide an accurate reconstruction of both scenarios into a single representation using the odometry system as the initial seed to further improve the map with data filtering and registration processes. An error of 0.049 m for the odometry estimation is observed with the GPS/IMU fusion for simulated data and 0.07 m for real field tests. The multi-domain map methodology requires an average of 300 ms per iteration to reconstruct the environment, with an error of at most 0.042 m in simulation.

2021

Classification and Recommendation With Data Streams

Authors
Veloso, B; Gama, J; Malheiro, B;

Publication
Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fifth Edition - Advances in Information Quality and Management

Abstract
Nowadays, with the exponential growth of data stream sources (e.g., Internet of Things [IoT], social networks, crowdsourcing platforms, and personal mobile devices), data stream processing has become indispensable for online classification, recommendation, and evaluation. Its main goal is to maintain dynamic models updated, holding the captured patterns, to make accurate predictions. The foundations of data streams algorithms are incremental processing, in order to reduce the computational resources required to process large quantities of data, and relevance model updating. This article addresses data stream knowledge processing, covering classification, recommendation, and evaluation; describing existing algorithms/techniques; and identifying open challenges.

2021

The MopBot Cleaning Robot – An EPS@ISEP 2020 Project

Authors
Tuluc, C; Verberne, F; Lasota, S; de Almeida, T; Malheiro, B; Justo, J; Ribeiro, C; Silva, MF; Ferreira, P; Guedes, P;

Publication
Educating Engineers for Future Industrial Revolutions - Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing

Abstract

2021

Design, Modeling, and Simulation of a Wing Sail Land Yacht

Authors
Tinoco, V; Malheiro, B; Silva, MF;

Publication
Applied Sciences

Abstract
Autonomous land yachts can play a major role in the context of environmental monitoring, namely, in open, flat, windy regions, such as iced planes or sandy shorelines. This work addresses the design, modeling, and simulation of a land yacht probe equipped with a rigid free-rotating wing sail and tail flap. The wing was designed with a symmetrical airfoil and dimensions to provide the necessary thrust to displace the vehicle. Specifically, it proposes a novel design and simulation method for free rotating wing sail autonomous land yachts. The simulation relies on the Gazebo simulator together with the Robotic Operating System (ROS) middleware. It uses a modified Gazebo aerodynamics plugin to generate the lift and drag forces and the yawing moment, two newly created plugins, one to act as a wind sensor and the other to set the wing flap angular position, and the 3D model of the land yacht created with Fusion 360. The wing sail aligns automatically to the wind direction and can be set to any given angle of attack, stabilizing after a few seconds. Finally, the obtained polar diagram characterizes the expected sailing performance of the land yacht. The described method can be adopted to evaluate different wing sail configurations, as well as control techniques, for autonomous land yachts.

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