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Publications

Publications by CPES

2024

A Novel Three-Phase Multiobjective Unified Power Quality Conditioner

Authors
Monteiro, V; Moreira, C; Lopes, JAP; Antunes, CH; Osorio, GJ; Catalao, JPS; Afonso, JL;

Publication
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS

Abstract
The decarbonization of the economy and the increasing integration of renewable energy sources into the generation mix are bringing new challenges, requiring novel technological solutions in the topic of smart grids, which include smart transformers and energy storage systems. Additionally, power quality is a vital concern for the future smart grids; therefore, the continuous development of power electronics solutions to overcome power quality problems is of the utmost importance. In this context, this article proposes a novel three-phase multiobjective unified power quality conditioner (MO-UPQC), considering interfaces for solar PV panels and for energy storage in batteries. The MO-UPQC is capable of compensating power quality problems in the voltages (at the load side) and in the currents (at the power grid side), while it enables injecting power into the grid (from the PV panels or batteries) or charging the batteries (from the PV panels or from the grid). Experimental results were obtained with a three-phase four-wire laboratory prototype, demonstrating the feasibility and the large range of applications of the proposed MO-UPQC.

2024

Flexibility extension in hydropower for the provision of frequency control services within the European energy transition

Authors
Vasconcelos, MH; Castro, MV; Nicolet, C; Moreira, CL;

Publication
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL POWER & ENERGY SYSTEMS

Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of the large-scale deployment of hydropower on the provision of frequency regulation services, when equipped with the extended flexibility solutions being developed and/or tested within the scope of the XFLEX HYDRO project. The current analysis is performed on the Iberian Peninsula (IP) power grid considering its interconnection to the Continental Europe (CE) system, since this power system zone is expected to have the most severe frequency transient behaviour in future scenarios with increased shares of variable renewable energies. For this purpose, prospective scenarios with increased shares of time variable renewable generation were identified and analysed. To assess the impacts of the hydropower flexibility solutions on frequency dynamics after a major active power loss, extensive time domain simulations were performed of the power system, including reliable reduced order dynamic models for the hydropower flexibility solutions under evaluation. This research assesses the effects of synchronous and synthetic inertia, and of the Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) and Fast Frequency Response (FFR) services as specified in European grid codes. The main findings highlight the potential of hydropower inertia and of adopting a variable speed technology for enhancing frequency stability, while contribute to better understand the role of hydropower plants in future power systems.

2024

A review on the decarbonization of high-performance computing centers

Authors
Silva, CA; Vilaça, R; Pereira, A; Bessa, RJ;

Publication
RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS

Abstract
High-performance computing relies on performance-oriented infrastructures with access to powerful computing resources to complete tasks that contribute to solve complex problems in society. The intensive use of resources and the increase in service demand due to emerging fields of science, combined with the exascale paradigm, climate change concerns, and rising energy costs, ultimately means that the decarbonization of these centers is key to improve their environmental and financial performance. Therefore, a review on the main opportunities and challenges for the decarbonization of high-performance computing centers is essential to help decision-makers, operators and users contribute to a more sustainable computing ecosystem. It was found that state-of-the-art supercomputers are growing in computing power, but are combining different measures to meet sustainability concerns, namely going beyond energy efficiency measures and evolving simultaneously in terms of energy and information technology infrastructure. It was also shown that policy and multiple entities are now targeting specifically HPC, and that identifying synergies with the energy sector can reveal new revenue streams, but also enable a smoother integration of these centers in energy systems. Computing-intensive users can continue to pursue their scientific research, but participating more actively in the decarbonization process, in cooperation with computing service providers. Overall, many opportunities, but also challenges, were identified, to decrease carbon emissions in a sector mostly concerned with improving hardware performance.

2024

Comparison between LightGBM and other ML algorithms in PV fault classification

Authors
Monteiro, P; Lino, J; Araújo, RE; Costa, L;

Publication
EAI Endorsed Transactions on Energy Web

Abstract
In this paper, the performance analysis of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms for fault analysis in photovoltaic (PV) plants, is given for different algorithms. To make the comparison more relevant, this study is made based on a real dataset. The goal was to use electric and environmental data from a PV system to provide a framework for analysing, comparing, and discussing five ML algorithms, such as: Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Decision Tree (DT), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM). The research findings suggest that an algorithm from the Gradient Boosting family called LightGBM can offer comparable or better performance in fault diagnosis for PV system.

2024

Protection system planning in distribution networks with microgrids using a bi-level multi-objective and multi-criteria optimization technique

Authors
Reiz, C; Leite, JB; Gouveia, CS; Javadi, MS;

Publication
ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS RESEARCH

Abstract
Microgrids are able to improve several features of power systems, such as energy efficiencies, operating costs and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, microgrids' protection must work congruently with power distribution protection to safely take all advantages. This research contributes to enable their protection by proposing a bilevel method to simultaneously solve the allocation and coordination problems, where the proposed scheme also includes local protections of distributed energy resources. The uncertainties associated with generation and loads are categorized by the k-means method, as well. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II is employed in the upper-level task to solve the protection and control devices allocation problem with two opposing objectives. In the lower-level task, a genetic algorithm ensures their coordination. Protection devices include reclosers and fuses from the network, and directional relays for the point of common coupling of microgrids, while control devices consist of remote-controlled switches. In contrast to related works, local devices installed at the point of coupling of distributed generation units are considered as well, such as voltage-restrained overcurrent relays and frequency relays. The optimal solution for the decision-maker is achieved by utilizing the compromise programming technique. Results show the importance of solving the allocation and coordination problems simultaneously, achieving up to $25,000 cost savings compared to cases that solve these problems separately. The integrated strategy allows the network operator to select the optimum solution for the protective system and avoid corrective actions afterward. The results also show the viability of the islanding operation depending on the decision maker's criteria.

2024

Contextual Rule-Based System for Brightness Energy Management in Buildings

Authors
Ferreira, V; Pinto, T; Baptista, J;

Publication
ELECTRONICS

Abstract
The increase in renewable generation of a distributed nature has brought significant new challenges to power and energy system management and operation. Self-consumption in buildings is widespread, and with it rises the need for novel, adaptive and intelligent building energy management systems. Although there is already extensive research and development work regarding building energy management solutions, the capabilities for adaptation and contextualization of decisions are still limited. Consequently, this paper proposes a novel contextual rule-based system for energy management in buildings, which incorporates a contextual dimension that enables the adaptability of the system according to diverse contextual situations and the presence of multiple users with different preferences. Results of a case study based on real data show that the contextualization of the energy management process can maintain energy costs as low as possible, while respecting user preferences and guaranteeing their comfort.

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