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Publications

Publications by José Luís Santos

2015

Ammonia sensing system based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy

Authors
Viveiros, D; Ferreira, J; Silva, SO; Ribeiro, J; Flores, D; Santos, JL; Frazao, O; Baptista, JM;

Publication
Photonic Sensors

Abstract
A sensing system in the near infrared region has been developed for ammonia sensing based on the wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) principle. The WMS is a rather sensitive technique for detecting atomic/molecular species, presenting the advantage that it can be used in the near-infrared region by using the optical telecommunications technology. In this technique, the laser wavelength and intensity were modulated by applying a sine wave signal through the injection current, which allowed the shift of the detection bandwidth to higher frequencies where laser intensity noise was typically lower. Two multi-pass cells based on free space light propagation with 160 cm and 16 cm of optical path length were used, allowing the redundancy operation and technology validation. This system used a diode laser with an emission wavelength at 1512.21 nm, where NH3 has a strong absorption line. The control of the NH3 gas sensing system, as well as acquisition, processing and data presentation was performed. © 2015, The Author(s).

2016

Aptamer-based fiber sensor for thrombin detection

Authors
Coelho, L; Marques Martins de Almeida, JMM; Santos, JL; da Silva Jorge, PAD; Martins, MCL; Viegas, D; Queiros, RB;

Publication
JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS

Abstract
The detection of thrombin based on aptamer binding is studied using two different optical fiber-based configurations: long period gratings coated with a thin layer of titanium dioxide and surface plasmon resonance devices in optical fibers coated with a multilayer of gold and titanium dioxide. These structures are functionalized and the performance to detect thrombin in the range 10 to 100 nM is compared in transmission mode. The sensitivity to the surrounding refractive index (RI) of the plasmonic device is higher than 3100 nmRIU(-1) in the RI range 1.335 to 1.355, a factor of 20 greater than the sensitivity of the coated grating. The detection of 10 nM of thrombin was accomplished with a wavelength shift of 3.5 nm and a resolution of 0.54 nM. (C) 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

2016

Characterization of zinc oxide coated optical fiber long period gratings with improved refractive index sensing properties

Authors
Coelho, L; Viegas, D; Santos, JL; de Almeida, JMMM;

Publication
SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL

Abstract
A fiber-optic refractive index (RI) sensor based on a long period fiber grating (LPFG) coated with a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film was fabricated and characterized. A method to overcoat the LPFG's with a homogeneous ZnO thin films was developed. Characterization of ZnO thin films, deposited simultaneously on silicon (Si) planar substrates, was performed using Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The LPFGs with ZnO coatings from 29 to 145 nm of thickness were characterized and compared in terms of the wavelength shift and the intensity of the attenuation bands changing the surrounding refractive index (SRI) from 1.300 to 1.600. An average wavelength sensitivity of similar to 7162 nm/RIU was achieved in the RI range from 1.440 to 1.456 and more than 12,000 nm/RIU at 1.440 RI. Using a ZnO film thickness of 116 nm and in the RI region between 1.320 and 1.360 the average sensitivity of similar to 806 nm/RIU was measured for a 145 nm thick film. Working as an intensity sensing device, the 87 nm coated LPFG shows a linear sensitivity of 216.4 dB/RIU in a wide range of RI from 1.340 to 1.420.

2015

Cryogenic Temperature Response of Reflection-Based Phase-Shifted Long-Period Fiber Gratings

Authors
Martins, R; Caldas, P; Teixeira, B; Azevedo, J; Monteiro, J; Belo, JH; Araujo, JP; Santos, JL; Rego, G;

Publication
JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
In this study, we investigated the temperature behavior of phase-shifted long-period fiber gratings (PS-LPFGs) inscribed in two types of optical fiber: B/Ge and SMF28. The experiments were carried out from 5 to 305 K using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The average temperature sensitivity obtained of -0.43 nm/K for PS-LPFGs inscribed in the B/Ge fiber is one order of magnitude larger than for PS-LPFGs inscribed in the SMF28 fiber, in the 60-240 K range. Values ranging from -0.08 nm/K up to 0.2 nm/K were obtained in the 5-35 K temperature range, which are considerably better than previous results achieved for metal-coated FBGs and also for LPFGs inscribed in a similar B/Ge codoped fiber. Nevertheless, further work is required in order to correctly address sensor reliability.

2016

Fabrication and Characterization of Metal Oxide-Coated Long-Period Fiber Gratings

Authors
Coelho, L; Santos, JL; Viegas, D; Marques Martins de Almeida, JMMM;

Publication
JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
Sensors based on long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) over coated with metal oxide were fabricated and characterized for refractive index (RI) sensing. Oxidation of Ni, Ti, Al, and Cr was monitored in real time by following the features of the LPFG attenuation band. Themetals were deposited simultaneously on top of Si substrates for further chemical and morphological analysis. Wavelength sensitivities (nm/RIU) of about 10 437 at 1.432, 1150 at 1.400, 20 125 at 1.448, and 875 at 1.420 were achieved for LPFGs coated, with 68 nm of Ni, 60 nm of TiO2, 50 nm of Al2O3, and 62 nm of Cr2O3, respectively. For surrounding RI higher than the cladding RI, the wavelength sensitivities are 1937, 6801, 5762, and 3051 nm/RIU at 1.457 for the Ni, Ti, Al, and Cr oxides, respectively. Working as intensity sensing devices sensitivities up to 167 dB/RIU were measured. Metal oxide coated LPFGs leads to wavelength sensitivity enhancement comparing to bare LPFGs and may be used in systems with RI higher than the fiber cladding, a region where bare LPFGs are insensitive.

2015

Fabry-Perot cavity based on silica tube for strain sensing at high temperatures

Authors
Ferreira, MS; Roriz, P; Bierlich, J; Kobelke, J; Wondraczek, K; Aichele, C; Schuster, K; Santos, JL; Frazao, O;

Publication
OPTICS EXPRESS

Abstract
In this work, a Fabry-Perot cavity based on a new silica tube design is proposed. The tube presents a cladding with a thickness of similar to 14 mu m and a hollow core. The presence of four small rods, of similar to 20 mu m diameter each, placed in diametrically opposite positions ensure the mechanical stability of the tube. The cavity, formed by splicing a section of the silica tube between two sections of single mode fiber, is characterized in strain and temperature (from room temperature to 900 degrees C). When the sensor is exposed to high temperatures, there is a change in the response to strain. The influence of the thermal annealing is investigated in order to improve the sensing head performance. (C)2015 Optical Society of America

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