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Publications

Publications by Carla Carmelo Rosa

2016

Effects of shielding on pelvic and abdominal IORT dose distributions

Authors
Esposito, A; Sakellaris, T; Limede, P; Costa, F; Cunha, LT; Dias, AG; Lencart, J; Sarmento, S; Rosa, CC;

Publication
PHYSICA MEDICA-EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL PHYSICS

Abstract
Purpose: To study the impact of shielding elements in the proximity of Intra-Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) irradiation fields, and to generate graphical and quantitative information to assist radiation oncologists in the design of optimal shielding during pelvic and abdominal IORT. Method: An IORT system was modeled with BEAMnrc and EGS++ Monte Carlo codes. The model was validated in reference conditions by gamma index analysis against an experimental data set of different beam energies, applicator diameters, and bevel angles. The reliability of the IORT model was further tested considering shielding layers inserted in the radiation beam. Further simulations were performed introducing a bone-like layer embedded in the water phantom. The dose distributions were calculated as 3D dose maps. Results: The analysis of the resulting 2D dose maps parallel to the clinical axis shows that the bevel angle of the applicator and its position relative to the shielding have a major influence on the dose distribution. When insufficient shielding is used, a hotspot nearby the shield appears near the surface. At greater depths, lateral scatter limits the dose reduction attainable with shielding, although the presence of bone-like structures in the phantom reduces the impact of this effect. Conclusions: Dose distributions in shielded IORT procedures are affected by distinct contributions when considering the regions near the shielding and deeper in tissue: insufficient shielding may lead to residual dose and hotspots, and the scattering effects may enlarge the beam in depth. These effects must be carefully considered when planning an IORT treatment with shielding.

2017

Computational modeling of red blood cells trapping using Optical Fiber Tweezers

Authors
Paiva, JS; Ribeiro, RSR; Jorge, PAS; Rosa, CC; Cunha, JPS;

Publication
ENBENG 2017 - 5th Portuguese Meeting on Bioengineering, Proceedings

Abstract
Optical Tweezers (OT) are able to trap/manipulate dielectric particles with few microns in a contactless manner due to forces exerted on them by a strongly focused optical beam. OT are being applied in Biology/Medicine, especially Optical Fiber Tweezers (OFT), for being simpler and more flexible than the conventional setups. Despite of the trapping phenomena of symmetrical particles by OFTs being already modeled, effects regarding complex bodies remain poorly understood. Here we provide a 2D characterization of the trapping forces exerted by a laser OFT on a geometric form of a Red Blood Cell (RBC), occupying different positions in a grid, using the method proposed by Barnett&Loudon. Comparisons were made between the forces exerted on a RBC having the mean normal size; a RBC with 80% of the normal size and an 1.5µm circular particle, due to the size and shape variability of biological-derived structures. The influence of RBCs inclination angles regarding its major axis on trapping performance was also evaluated for angles of p/4 and p/2. Simulation results showed that trapping phenomena are possible for all the conditions evaluated, as well as calculated trapping forces range was according with the literature (pN). We observed that, despite of modeled particles having the same optical characteristics, features such as particle geometry, size, position and inclination degree influence trapping. Trapping forces magnitude was higher for RBC relatively to the circular symmetrical particle; for large RBCs than RBCs with smaller dimensions; and for inclined RBCs than erythrocytes horizontally aligned. Those results reinforce the importance of modeling optical experiments to determine relevant parameters which affect trapping performance. © 2017 IEEE.

2017

2D computational modeling of optical trapping effects on malaria-infected red blood cells

Authors
Paiva, JS; Ribeiro, RSR; Jorge, PAS; Rosa, CC; Guerreiro, A; Cunha, JPS;

Publication
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers

Abstract
A computational method for optical fiber trapping of healthy and Malariainfected blood cells characterization is proposed. A trapping force relation with the infection stage was found, which could trigger the development of a diagnostic sensor. © OSA 2017.

2013

Validation of dose measurements by scintillating fiber optic dosimeters for medical applications

Authors
Correia, A; Pirraco, R; Rosa, CC;

Publication
8TH IBEROAMERICAN OPTICS MEETING AND 11TH LATIN AMERICAN MEETING ON OPTICS, LASERS, AND APPLICATIONS

Abstract
Organic scintillators have been promoted and widely used in scintillating fiber-optic dosimeters (SFOD) due to their tissue-equivalent characteristics, small sensitive volume combined with high spatial resolution, and emission of visible light proportional to the absorbed electron and gamma dose rate. In this paper we will present the validation of Monte Carlo simulations of dose measurements assisted by scintillating fiber optic dosimeters operating in the visible spectral range, in the context of the development of fiber optic dosimeters targeted to Brachytherapy. The Monte Carlo simulation results are compared to measurements performed with SFOD test probes, assembled with BCF-60 (Saint Gobain) samples of 1 mm diameter and 0.35 to 1.5 cm length, coupled to PMMA optical fiber. The optical signal resulting from scintillation and Cherenkov light is transmitted through an additional optical fiber link to a remote measuring device. For SFOD probes irradiation a dedicated PMMA phantom was used. The results were validated against measurements obtained with a properly calibrated pinpoint ionization chamber (PTW). The probes were positioned in a radial arrangement, with a radioactive source at its center point. The gamma-rays source is a Nucletron Microselectron-V2 Ir-192. The dose curves are obtained according to the different positions in the phantom with the SFOD dosimeters. The system is able to use a Fiber Optic Multiplexer (FOM) controlled with Labview software.

2014

Advanced experiments with an Erbium doped fiber laser

Authors
Marques, PVS; Marques, MB; Rosa, CC;

Publication
12TH EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN OPTICS AND PHOTONICS CONFERENCE

Abstract
This communication describes an optical hands-on fiber laser experiment aimed at advanced college courses. Optical amplifiers and laser sources represent very important optical devices in numerous applications ranging from telecommunications to medicine. The study of advanced photonics experiments is particularly relevant at undergraduate and master level. This paper discusses the implementation of an optical fiber laser made with a cavity built with two tunable Bragg gratings. This scheme allows the students to understand the laser working principles as a function of the laser cavity set-up. One or both of the gratings can be finely tuned in wavelength through applied stress; therefore, the degree of spectral mismatch of the two gratings can be adjusted, effectively changing the cavity feedback. The impact of the cavity conditions on the laser threshold, spectrum and efficiency is analyzed. This experiment assumes that in a previous practice, the students should had already characterized the erbium doped fiber in terms of absorption and fluorescent spectra, and the spectral gain as a function of pump power.

2015

Eight year experience in open ended instrumentation laboratory

Authors
Marques, MB; Rosa, CC; Marques, PVS;

Publication
EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN OPTICS AND PHOTONICS: ETOP 2015

Abstract
When designing laboratory courses in a Physics Major we consider a range of objectives: teaching Physics; developing lab competencies; instrument control and data acquisition; learning about measurement errors and error propagation; an introduction to project management; team work skills and scientific writing. But nowadays we face pressure to decrease laboratory hours due to the cost involved. Many universities are replacing lab classes for simulation activities, hiring PhD. and master students to give first year lab classes, and reducing lab hours. This leads to formatted lab scripts and poor autonomy of the students, and failure to enhance creativity and autonomy. In this paper we present our eight year experience with a laboratory course that is mandatory in the third year of Physics and Physical Engineering degrees. Since the students had previously two standard laboratory courses, we focused on teaching instrumentation and giving students autonomy. The course is divided in two parts: one third is dedicated to learn computer controlled instrumentation and data acquisition (based in LabView); the final 2/3 is dedicated to a group project. In this project, the team (2 or 3 students) must develop a project and present it in a typical conference format at the end of the semester. The project assignments are usually not very detailed (about two or three lines long), giving only general guidelines pointing to a successful project (students often recycle objectives putting forward a very personal project); all of them require assembling some hardware. Due to our background, about one third of the projects are related to Optics.

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