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Publications

Publications by Paulo Robalinho

2022

Temperature-Monitored Fibre Optic Current Sensor Using Channelled-Spectrum Analysis

Authors
Robalinho, P; Melo, M; Frazao, O; Ribeiro, ABL;

Publication
IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS

Abstract
The fibre optic current sensor demonstrated here uses the intrinsic temperature and wavelength dependence of the Verdet constant of a terbium gallium garnet (TGG) magneto-optic material and the two micro-optic linear polarizers attached, to simultaneously extract the values of temperature and the optical Faraday rotation (induced by the presence of the magnetic field due an electric current on a conductor) without any extra optical component attached to the optical sensor head. The simultaneous measurement is achieved by illuminating the sensor head with a broadband optical source and by careful signal processing of the originated channelled-spectrum, compensate the sensor's temperature dependence.

2022

Resilience to Passive Attacks of a Secure Key Distribution System Based on an Ultra-Long Fiber Laser Using a Bi-Directional EDFA

Authors
Soares, B; Robalinho, P; Guerreiro, A; Frazao, O;

Publication
PHOTONICS

Abstract
In this paper, we study the implementation of a secure key distribution system based on an ultra-long fiber laser with a bi-directional erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The resilience of the system was tested against passive attacks from an eavesdropper. A similarity was observed in the spectra for both secure configurations of the system and no signature that would allow an eavesdropper to obtain the secure state of the system was observed during the state transitions.

2023

Fiber Loop Mirror Based on Optical Fiber Circulator for Sensing Applications

Authors
Robalinho, P; Soares, B; Lobo, A; Silva, S; Frazao, O;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
In this paper, a different Fiber Loop Mirror (FLM) configuration with two circulators is presented. This configuration is demonstrated and characterized for sensing applications. This new design concept was used for strain and torsion discrimination. For strain measurement, the interference fringe displacement has a sensitivity of (0.576 +/- 0.009) pm.mu epsilon(-1). When the FFT (Fast Fourier Transformer) is calculated and the frequency shift and signal amplitude are monitored, the sensitivities are (-2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10(-4) nm(-1) mu epsilon(-1) and (4.9 +/- 0.3) x 10(-7) mu epsilon(-1), respectively. For the characterization in torsion, an FFT peaks variation of (-2.177 +/- 0.002) x 10(-12) nm(-1)/degrees and an amplitude variation of (1.02 +/- 0.06) x 10(-3)/degrees are achieved. This configuration allows the use of a wide range of fiber lengths and with different refractive indices for controlling the free spectral range (FSR) and achieving refractive index differences, i.e., birefringence, higher than 10(-2), which is essential for the development of high sensitivity physical parameter sensors, such as operating on the Vernier effect. Furthermore, this FLM configuration allows the system to be balanced, which is not possible with traditional FLMs.

2023

White Light Interferometry: Absolute and High Precision Measurement for Long-Cavity Fibre Fabry-Perot Sensors

Authors
Robalinho, P; Rodrigues, A; Novais, S; Ribeiro, ABL; Silva, S; Frazão, O;

Publication
EPJ Web of Conferences

Abstract
White Light Interferometry, known for its absolute measurement capability and high precision, had its greatest scientific impact towards the end of the 20th century. In this work, it was assembled and characterized a fibre Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as an interrogator and a fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) as a displacement sensor. A measurement bandwidth between 65 µm and 95 µm was obtained for FPI cavities close to 2.35 mm, at sampling frequencies between 600 Hz and 1500 Hz. Additionally, a resonant frequency at 550 Hz was achieved, allowing for an interrogation band higher than 135 µm. It was also determined a minimum absolute resolution of ± 66 nm, corresponding to a relative resolution of ± 9.4×10-4 in relation to the total band.

2020

WiPTherm: Hybrid power harvesting system for a 3U CubeSat

Authors
Agelet, FA; Darau, VD; Camanzo, A; Luis, UG; Orgeira Crespo, P; Navarro Medina, F; Luis, UG; Ulloa, C; Botelho, V; Hallak, Y; Pires, AL; Maia, MM; Pereira, AM; Silva, J; Ribeiro, M; Machado, V; Pimenta, J; Silva, S; California, A; Leconte, B; Jamier, R; Auguste, JL; Roy, P; Robalinho, P; Frazão, O;

Publication
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC

Abstract
CubeSats are becoming an alternative challenge for space exploration. Research in the technology and applicability of these small platforms has received an increasing interest in the last years. They represent an emergent technological market (CAGR growth of 37.91 % in the 2017-2021 period), while a variety of fields like meteorology, climatic research, transportation safety, or navigation is resorting to this technology. As more complex CubeSats missions are defined, a natural increase in the mission power demand occurs. In a scarce-resource environment like the space, this demands the development of new ways of harvesting spacecraft electrical energy. An alternative to traditional energy harvesting systems composed of solar panels and batteries is Wireless Energy Transfer (WET). It originates in the electromagnetic transfer, proven to have two important limitations: high power efficiency decrease at distances bigger than coil size and the need of mobile parts. A new approach is proposed as a solution to these limitations: the possibility of mounting on a 3U CubeSat photo-thermoelectric generator array devices that can convert photon energy to electrical energy via thermal gradient generation. For creating the thermal gradient, a long-range laser source targets cells from each array forming the hybrid photo-thermoelectric plasmonic system (HPTP). Two possible scenarios are presented in terms of mission requirements and analysis: a controlled pulsed large-range laser source located on Earth, in the case of Earth-orbiting missions, or on a hub system, in a deep-space mission. For Earth, Mars and Jupiter, a simulation of the total energy produced by solar panels and the HPTP system is presented to illustrate the potential use of the WiPTherm technology. In each of the scenarios, key measures of effectiveness will be analysed to overcome potential CubeSat and constituent subsystems overheat, by comparison with nominal component and shield temperature profiles in both eclipse and illuminated cases when the HPTP system is not used. Pointing budget accuracy and jitter for targeting the HPTP generator cells and required laser link budget for a planned energy transfer efficiency of up to 10 % of the source power are other challenges covered in the presentation, apart from research topics from a multidisciplinary group covering nanomaterials science, optics, photonics, and CubeSats power systems engineering. Copyright

2022

WiPTherm: A novel energy harvesting paradigm for CubeSats

Authors
Navarro Medina, F; Aguado Agelet, F; Garcia Luis, U; Ulloa, C; Orgeira Crespo, P; Camanzo Mariño, A; Dragos Darau, V; Maia, MM; Gomez San Juan, A; Furtado, C; Machado, V; Califórnia, A; Bogas, S; Ferreira, C; Silva, J; Sousa, L; Machado, J; Roy, P; Auguste, J; Jamier, R; Leconte, B; Frazão, O; Robalinho, P; Pires, AL; Roacha, M; Comesaña, R; Pereira, AM;

Publication
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC

Abstract
Given the fact that CubeSats are becoming an alternative for accessible, reduced-risk development for space applications within an emergent technological market and that the power demand of these type of nanosatellites is increasing due to the complexity of the defined missions, an alternative solution to traditional energy harvesting systems (i.e., solar panels and batteries) is proposed within the WiPTherm project. Being a high-risk category (FET-Future and Emerging Technologies) project within the H2020 European funding scheme, it aims to provide a Wireless Energy Transfer solution via a photo-thermoelectric plasmonic (HPTP) generator array device that can convert photonic energy to electrical energy via thermal gradient. In order to create it, a long-range, continuous-wave (CW) laser source targets the cells of the HPTP generator, forming, as such, the photo-thermoelectric plasmonic system. Two possible scenarios were taken into account and presented in terms of mission requirements: the laser source charging the satellite from Earth, or a laser system mounted onto a master satellite charging a CubeSat orbiting Mars/Jupiter, within the context of a deep space mission. The development of such Wireless Energy Transfer (WET) system implies an improvement of the current technology in different research fields, among them: nanomaterials, photonics, electronics, and space systems. For the success of the project, all of them shall be developed considering the different interfaces as well as the assembly principles, to be compatible with the support structure: a 3U CubeSat. From the Assembly, Integration and Verification (AIV) plan point of view, a testing philosophy involving different models is presented: an STM of the complete 3U CubeSat for the development of higher-fidelity tests when evaluating both structural and thermal HPTP baseplate capabilities; an Engineering Model, where all the subsystems will be assembled on the CubeSat platform and all its functionalities tested; development models for all spacecraft subsystems that are new developments and are not off the shelf: HPTP, the CubeSat electrical module and the laser generator. As a conclusion, this work presents the concept beyond the technology herein purposed, its applicability, and, from the systems engineering point of view, the challenges faced on the AIV plan. © 2022 International Astronautical Federation, IAF. All rights reserved.

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