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Publications

Publications by Ricardo Pereira Cruz

2017

Combining Ranking with Traditional Methods for Ordinal Class Imbalance

Authors
Cruz, R; Fernandes, K; Costa, JFP; Ortiz, MP; Cardoso, JS;

Publication
ADVANCES IN COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, IWANN 2017, PT II

Abstract
In classification problems, a dataset is said to be imbalanced when the distribution of the target variable is very unequal. Classes contribute unequally to the decision boundary, and special metrics are used to evaluate these datasets. In previous work, we presented pairwise ranking as a method for binary imbalanced classification, and extended to the ordinal case using weights. In this work, we extend ordinal classification using traditional balancing methods. A comparison is made against traditional and ordinal SVMs, in which the ranking adaption proposed is found to be competitive.

2016

Tackling Class Imbalance with Ranking

Authors
Cruz, R; Fernandes, K; Cardoso, JS; Costa, JFP;

Publication
2016 INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON NEURAL NETWORKS (IJCNN)

Abstract
In classification, when there is a disproportion in the number of observations in each class, the data is said to be class imbalance. Class imbalance is pervasive in real world applications of data classification and has been the focus of much research. The minority class contributes too little to the decision boundary because the learning process learns from each observation in isolation. In this paper, we discuss the application of learning pairwise rankers as a solution to class imbalance. We compare ranking models to alternatives from the literature.

2017

Constraining Type II Error: Building Intentionally Biased Classifiers

Authors
Cruz, R; Fernandes, K; Costa, JFP; Cardoso, JS;

Publication
ADVANCES IN COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, IWANN 2017, PT II

Abstract
In many applications, false positives (type I error) and false negatives (type II) have different impact. In medicine, it is not considered as bad to falsely diagnosticate someone healthy as sick (false positive) as it is to diagnosticate someone sick as healthy (false negative). But we are also willing to accept some rate of false negatives errors in order to make the classification task possible at all. Where the line is drawn is subjective and prone to controversy. Usually, this compromise is given by a cost matrix where an exchange rate between errors is defined. For many reasons, however, it might not be natural to think of this trade-off in terms of relative costs. We explore novel learning paradigms where this trade-off can be given in the form of the amount of false negatives we are willing to tolerate. The classifier then tries to minimize false positives while keeping false negatives within the acceptable bound. Here we consider classifiers based on kernel density estimation, gradient descent modifications and applying a threshold to classifying and ranking scores.

2017

Ordinal Class Imbalance with Ranking

Authors
Cruz, R; Fernandes, K; Costa, JFP; Ortiz, MP; Cardoso, JS;

Publication
PATTERN RECOGNITION AND IMAGE ANALYSIS (IBPRIA 2017)

Abstract
Classification datasets, which feature a skewed class distribution, are said to be class imbalance. Traditional methods favor the larger classes. We propose pairwise ranking as a method for imbalance classification so that learning compares pairs of observations from each class, and therefore both contribute equally to the decision boundary. In previous work, we suggested treating the binary classification as a ranking problem, followed by a threshold mapping to convert back the ranking score to the original classes. In this work, the method is extended to multi-class ordinal classification, and a new mapping threshold is proposed. Results are compared with traditional and ordinal SVMs, and ranking obtains competitive results.

2017

Fine-to-Coarse Ranking in Ordinal and Imbalanced Domains: An Application to Liver Transplantation

Authors
Perez Ortiz, M; Fernandes, K; Cruz, R; Cardoso, JS; Briceno, J; Hervas Martinez, C;

Publication
ADVANCES IN COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, IWANN 2017, PT II

Abstract
Nowadays imbalanced learning represents one of the most vividly discussed challenges in machine learning. In these scenarios, one or some of the classes in the problem have a significantly lower a priori probability, usually leading to trivial or non-desirable classifiers. Because of this, imbalanced learning has been researched to a great extent by means of different approaches. Recently, the focus has switched from binary classification to other paradigms where imbalanced data also arise, such as ordinal classification. This paper tests the application of learning pairwise ranking with multiple granularity levels in an ordinal and imbalanced classification problem where the aim is to construct an accurate model for donor-recipient allocation in liver transplantation. Our experiments show that approaching the problem as ranking solves the imbalance issue and leads to a competitive performance.

2018

A Class Imbalance Ordinal Method for Alzheimer's Disease Classification

Authors
Cruz, R; Silveira, M; Cardoso, JS;

Publication
2018 International Workshop on Pattern Recognition in Neuroimaging, PRNI 2018, Singapore, Singapore, June 12-14, 2018

Abstract
The majority of computer-Aided diagnosis methods for Alzheimer's disease (AD) from brain images either address only two stages of the disease at a time (and reduce the problem to binary classification) or do not exploit the ordinal nature of the different classes. An exception is the work by Fan et al. [1], which proposed an ordinal method that obtained better performance than traditional multiclass classification. Still, special care should be taken when data is class imbalanced, i.e. when some classes are overly represented when compared to others. Building on top of [1], this work makes use of a recently published ordinal classifier, which transforms the problem into sets of pairwise ranking problems, in order to address the class imbalance in the data [2]. Several methods were experimented with, using a Support Vector Machine as the underlying estimator. The pairwise ranking approach has shown promising results, both for traditional and imbalance metrics. © 2018 IEEE.

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