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Publications

Publications by José Almeida

2016

Antimicrobial effect of essential oils of Laurus nobilis L. and Rosmarinus officinallis L. on shelf-life of minced "Maronesa" beef stored under different packaging conditions

Authors
Vilela, J; Martins, D; Monteiro Silva, F; Gonzalez Aguilar, G; de Almeida, JMMM; Saraiva, C;

Publication
FOOD PACKAGING AND SHELF LIFE

Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oils (EOs) of plants naturally occurring in northern Portugal on the spoilage of fresh Maronesa beef burgers stored at 2 and 8 degrees C under different packaging conditions. EOs were obtained from dried leaves of laurel (Laurus Nobilis L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinallis L.) by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Analysis of volatile composition of essential oils of rosemary and laurel was achieved by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Thermal Conductivity Detection (GC-TCD) resulting in the detection of 95.8% and 89.4% of its compounds, respectively. Fresh beef (semitendinosus and semimembranosus) of DOP-Maronesa breed (males; n = 4) were obtained from local market and transported to the laboratory. Samples were stored at 2 and 8 degrees C in two different conditions: aerobiosis (A) and vacuum (V) and analyzed at 0,1, 2, 3, 5, 7,10,14, 21 and 28 days for Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Fungi, Total mesophilic (TM) and psychrotrophic (TP), color (L*a*b*) and pH. Laurel was the most effective EO keeping pH from increasing. Coordinates L* and a* were higher on samples containing laurel EO for both A and V packaging. Laurel also showed better effect in reducing microbiologic counts in samples packed in A at both 2 and 8 degrees C and packed in V at 8 degrees C. Rosemary was effective in reducing microbial counts on all V samples stored at 2 degrees C. This study allows to conclude that Laurel EO has significant effect in shelf-life, maintaining fresh beef color.

2016

Aptamer-based fiber sensor for thrombin detection

Authors
Coelho, L; Marques Martins de Almeida, JMM; Santos, JL; da Silva Jorge, PAD; Martins, MCL; Viegas, D; Queiros, RB;

Publication
JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS

Abstract
The detection of thrombin based on aptamer binding is studied using two different optical fiber-based configurations: long period gratings coated with a thin layer of titanium dioxide and surface plasmon resonance devices in optical fibers coated with a multilayer of gold and titanium dioxide. These structures are functionalized and the performance to detect thrombin in the range 10 to 100 nM is compared in transmission mode. The sensitivity to the surrounding refractive index (RI) of the plasmonic device is higher than 3100 nmRIU(-1) in the RI range 1.335 to 1.355, a factor of 20 greater than the sensitivity of the coated grating. The detection of 10 nM of thrombin was accomplished with a wavelength shift of 3.5 nm and a resolution of 0.54 nM. (C) 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

2016

Characterization of zinc oxide coated optical fiber long period gratings with improved refractive index sensing properties

Authors
Coelho, L; Viegas, D; Santos, JL; de Almeida, JMMM;

Publication
SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL

Abstract
A fiber-optic refractive index (RI) sensor based on a long period fiber grating (LPFG) coated with a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film was fabricated and characterized. A method to overcoat the LPFG's with a homogeneous ZnO thin films was developed. Characterization of ZnO thin films, deposited simultaneously on silicon (Si) planar substrates, was performed using Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The LPFGs with ZnO coatings from 29 to 145 nm of thickness were characterized and compared in terms of the wavelength shift and the intensity of the attenuation bands changing the surrounding refractive index (SRI) from 1.300 to 1.600. An average wavelength sensitivity of similar to 7162 nm/RIU was achieved in the RI range from 1.440 to 1.456 and more than 12,000 nm/RIU at 1.440 RI. Using a ZnO film thickness of 116 nm and in the RI region between 1.320 and 1.360 the average sensitivity of similar to 806 nm/RIU was measured for a 145 nm thick film. Working as an intensity sensing device, the 87 nm coated LPFG shows a linear sensitivity of 216.4 dB/RIU in a wide range of RI from 1.340 to 1.420.

2015

Detection of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Thermal Deterioration Using a Long Period Fibre Grating Sensor Coated with Titanium Dioxide

Authors
Coelho, L; Viegas, D; Santos, JL; de Almeida, JMMM;

Publication
FOOD AND BIOPROCESS TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
A new sensing system for the detection of thermal deterioration of extra virgin olive oil based on long period fibre grating is reported. It is demonstrated the feasibility of long period fibre grating sensor for the analysis of high refractive index edible oils. The detection principle is the wavelength dependence of the attenuation bands of a TiO2-coated long period fibre grating on the changes in the refractive index of the medium surrounding the cladding surface of the optical fibre. The quality of the sensor was tested by measuring the wavelength shift of the attenuation bands in response to thermal deterioration of an edible oil (extra virgin olive oil) with refractive index higher than the fibre cladding. Absorption spectroscopy has allowed the effects of thermal deterioration to be detected, for example, in the decreasing of the absorption band at 677 nm, attributed to chlorophyll A. A detection limit of about 5 min at 180 A degrees C and of about 2 min at 225 A degrees C was observed for the sensing system. The proposed sensing system could lead to the realisation of a biochemical sensor for the food industry. The change in refractive index of extra virgin olive oil as a function of heating time and temperature was systematically measured for the first time.

2016

Fabrication and Characterization of Metal Oxide-Coated Long-Period Fiber Gratings

Authors
Coelho, L; Santos, JL; Viegas, D; Marques Martins de Almeida, JMMM;

Publication
JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
Sensors based on long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) over coated with metal oxide were fabricated and characterized for refractive index (RI) sensing. Oxidation of Ni, Ti, Al, and Cr was monitored in real time by following the features of the LPFG attenuation band. Themetals were deposited simultaneously on top of Si substrates for further chemical and morphological analysis. Wavelength sensitivities (nm/RIU) of about 10 437 at 1.432, 1150 at 1.400, 20 125 at 1.448, and 875 at 1.420 were achieved for LPFGs coated, with 68 nm of Ni, 60 nm of TiO2, 50 nm of Al2O3, and 62 nm of Cr2O3, respectively. For surrounding RI higher than the cladding RI, the wavelength sensitivities are 1937, 6801, 5762, and 3051 nm/RIU at 1.457 for the Ni, Ti, Al, and Cr oxides, respectively. Working as intensity sensing devices sensitivities up to 167 dB/RIU were measured. Metal oxide coated LPFGs leads to wavelength sensitivity enhancement comparing to bare LPFGs and may be used in systems with RI higher than the fiber cladding, a region where bare LPFGs are insensitive.

2015

Monitoring of high refractive index edible oils using coated long period fiber grating sensors

Authors
Coelho, L; Viegas, D; Santos, JL; Marques Martins de Almeida, JMMM;

Publication
OPTICAL SENSORS 2015

Abstract
Monitoring the quality of high refractive index edible oils is of great importance for the human health. Uncooked edible oils in general are healthy foodstuff, olive oil in particular, however, they are frequently used for baking and cooking. High quality edible oils are made from seeds, nuts or fruits by mechanical processes. Nevertheless, once the mechanical extraction is complete, up to 15% of the oil remains in oil pomace and in the mill wastewater, which can be extracted using organic solvents, often hexane. Optical fiber sensors based on long period fiber gratings (LPFG) have very low wavelength sensitivity when the surround refractive index is higher than the refractive index of the cladding. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated LPFG could lead to the realization of high sensitivity chemical sensor for the food industry. In this work LPFG coated with a TiO2 thin film were successfully used for to detect small levels of hexane diluted in edible oils and for real time monitoring the thermal deterioration of edible oils. For a TiO2 coating of 30 nm a wavelength sensitivity of 1361.7 nm/RIU (or 0.97 nm /% V/V) in the 1.4610-1.4670 refractive index range was achieved, corresponding to 0 to 12 % V/V of hexane in olive oil. A sensitivity higher than 638 nm/RIU at 225 degrees C was calculated, in the 1.4670-1.4735 refractive index range with a detection limit of thermal deterioration of about 1 minute.

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