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Publications

Publications by CTM

2024

A Machine Learning App for Monitoring Physical Therapy at Home

Authors
Pereira, B; Cunha, B; Viana, P; Lopes, M; Melo, ASC; Sousa, ASP;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
Shoulder rehabilitation is a process that requires physical therapy sessions to recover the mobility of the affected limbs. However, these sessions are often limited by the availability and cost of specialized technicians, as well as the patient's travel to the session locations. This paper presents a novel smartphone-based approach using a pose estimation algorithm to evaluate the quality of the movements and provide feedback, allowing patients to perform autonomous recovery sessions. This paper reviews the state of the art in wearable devices and camera-based systems for human body detection and rehabilitation support and describes the system developed, which uses MediaPipe to extract the coordinates of 33 key points on the patient's body and compares them with reference videos made by professional physiotherapists using cosine similarity and dynamic time warping. This paper also presents a clinical study that uses QTM, an optoelectronic system for motion capture, to validate the methods used by the smartphone application. The results show that there are statistically significant differences between the three methods for different exercises, highlighting the importance of selecting an appropriate method for specific exercises. This paper discusses the implications and limitations of the findings and suggests directions for future research.

2024

Explaining Bounding Boxes in Deep Object Detectors Using Post Hoc Methods for Autonomous Driving Systems

Authors
Nogueira, C; Fernandes, L; Fernandes, JND; Cardoso, JS;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
Deep learning has rapidly increased in popularity, leading to the development of perception solutions for autonomous driving. The latter field leverages techniques developed for computer vision in other domains for accomplishing perception tasks such as object detection. However, the black-box nature of deep neural models and the complexity of the autonomous driving context motivates the study of explainability in these models that perform perception tasks. Moreover, this work explores explainable AI techniques for the object detection task in the context of autonomous driving. An extensive and detailed comparison is carried out between gradient-based and perturbation-based methods (e.g., D-RISE). Moreover, several experimental setups are used with different backbone architectures and different datasets to observe the influence of these aspects in the explanations. All the techniques explored consist of saliency methods, making their interpretation and evaluation primarily visual. Nevertheless, numerical assessment methods are also used. Overall, D-RISE and guided backpropagation obtain more localized explanations. However, D-RISE highlights more meaningful regions, providing more human-understandable explanations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach to obtaining explanations focusing on the regression of the bounding box coordinates.

2024

Explainable Deep Learning Methods in Medical Image Classification: A Survey

Authors
Patrício, C; Neves, JC; Teixeira, LF;

Publication
ACM Comput. Surv.

Abstract

2024

Explainable Deep Learning Methods in Medical Image Classification: A Survey

Authors
Patrício, C; Neves, JC; Lincs, N; Teixeira, LF;

Publication
ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS

Abstract
The remarkable success of deep learning has prompted interest in its application to medical imaging diagnosis. Even though state-of-the-art deep learning models have achieved human-level accuracy on the classification of different types of medical data, these models are hardly adopted in clinical workflows, mainly due to their lack of interpretability. The black-box nature of deep learning models has raised the need for devising strategies to explain the decision process of these models, leading to the creation of the topic of eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI). In this context, we provide a thorough survey of XAI applied to medical imaging diagnosis, including visual, textual, example-based and concept-based explanation methods. Moreover, this work reviews the existing medical imaging datasets and the existing metrics for evaluating the quality of the explanations. In addition, we include a performance comparison among a set of report generation-based methods. Finally, the major challenges in applying XAI to medical imaging and the future research directions on the topic are discussed.

2024

Systematic review on weapon detection in surveillance footage through deep learning

Authors
Santos, T; Oliveira, H; Cunha, A;

Publication
COMPUTER SCIENCE REVIEW

Abstract
In recent years, the number of crimes with weapons has grown on a large scale worldwide, mainly in locations where enforcement is lacking or possessing weapons is legal. It is necessary to combat this type of criminal activity to identify criminal behavior early and allow police and law enforcement agencies immediate action.Despite the human visual structure being highly evolved and able to process images quickly and accurately if an individual watches something very similar for a long time, there is a possibility of slowness and lack of attention. In addition, large surveillance systems with numerous equipment require a surveillance team, which increases the cost of operation. There are several solutions for automatic weapon detection based on computer vision; however, these have limited performance in challenging contexts.A systematic review of the current literature on deep learning-based weapon detection was conducted to identify the methods used, the main characteristics of the existing datasets, and the main problems in the area of automatic weapon detection. The most used models were the Faster R-CNN and the YOLO architecture. The use of realistic images and synthetic data showed improved performance. Several challenges were identified in weapon detection, such as poor lighting conditions and the difficulty of small weapon detection, the last being the most prominent. Finally, some future directions are outlined with a special focus on small weapon detection.

2024

Towards truly sustainable IoT systems: the SUPERIOT project

Authors
Katz, M; Paso, T; Mikhaylov, K; Pessoa, L; Fontes, H; Hakola, L; Leppaeniemi, J; Carlos, E; Dolmans, G; Rufo, J; Drzewiecki, M; Sallouha, H; Napier, B; Branquinho, A; Eder, K;

Publication
JOURNAL OF PHYSICS-PHOTONICS

Abstract
This paper provides an overview of the SUPERIOT project, an EU SNS JU (Smart Networks and Services Joint Undertaking) initiative focused on developing truly sustainable IoT systems. The SUPERIOT concept is based on a unique holistic approach to sustainability, proactively developing sustainable solutions considering the design, implementation, usage and disposal/reuse stages. The concept exploits radio and optical technologies to provide dual-mode wireless connectivity and dual-mode energy harvesting as well as dual-mode IoT node positioning. The implementation of the IoT nodes or devices will maximize the use of sustainable printed electronics technologies, including printed components, conductive inks and substrates. The paper describes the SUPERIOT concept, covering the key technical approaches to be used, promising scenarios and applications, project goals and demonstrators which will be developed to the proof-of-concept stage. In addition, the paper briefly discusses some important visions on how this technology may be further developed in the future.

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