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Publications

Publications by CAP

2022

Long-Period Fiber Gratings Coated with Poly(ethylene glycol) as Relative Humidity Sensors

Authors
Dias, B; de Almeida, JMMM; Coelho, LCC;

Publication
U.Porto Journal of Engineering

Abstract
Relative humidity is an important parameter in controlled environments and is typically monitored using low-cost electrochemical sensors with low resolution and accuracy. This kind of sensors cannot not be implemented in harsh or explosive environments (as in pyrotechnic facilities) due to electrical discharges, or in marine structures where the oxidation of the sensing probe materials changes the sensing response). In these cases, fiber optic sensors can provide solutions due to their intrinsic properties, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference and resistance in harsh environments. This work presents preliminary results regarding the steps of the fabrication of Long-Period Fiber Gratings, the coating processes with a thin layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and its sensing performance to relative humidity, displaying a from 60 to 100%sensitivity of 0.6 nm/%RH in the range of 80 to 100%RH.

2022

Femtosecond laser micromachining of suspended silica-core liquid-cladding waveguides inside a microfluidic channel

Authors
Maia, JM; Viveiros, D; Amorim, VA; Marques, PVS;

Publication
OPTICS AND LASERS IN ENGINEERING

Abstract
This work addresses the fabrication of straight silica-core liquid-cladding suspended waveguides inside a microfluidic channel through fs-laser micromachining. These structures enable the reconfiguration of the waveguide's mode profile and enhance the evanescent interaction between light and analyte. Further, their geometry resembles a tapered optical fiber with the added advantage of being monolithically integrated within a microfluidic platform. The fabrication process includes an additional post-processing thermal treatment responsible for smoothening the waveguide surface and reshaping it into a circular cross-section. Suspended waveguides with a minimum core diameter of 3.8 µm were fabricated. Their insertion losses can be tuned and are mainly affected by mode mismatch between the coupling and suspended waveguides. The transmission spectrum was studied and it was numerically confirmed that it consists of interference between the guided LP01 mode and uncoupled light and of modal interference between the LP01 and LP02 modes. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

2022

Differential Refractometric Biosensor for Reliable Human IgG Detection: Proof of Concept

Authors
Mendes, JP; Coelho, LCC; Jorge, PAS; Pereira, CM;

Publication
BIOSENSORS-BASEL

Abstract
A new sensing platform based on long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) for direct, fast, and selective detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG; Mw = 150 KDa) was developed and characterized. The transducer's high selectivity is based on the specific interaction of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs) design for IgG detection. The sensing scheme is based on differential refractometric measurements, including a correction system based on a non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-coated LPFG, allowing reliable and more sensitive measurements, improving the rejection of false positives in around 30%. The molecular imprinted binding sites were performed on the surface of a LPFG with a sensitivity of about 130 nm/RIU and a FOM of 16 RIU-1. The low-cost and easy to build device was tested in a working range from 1 to 100 nmol/L, revealing a limit of detection (LOD) and a sensitivity of 0.25 nmol/L (0.037 mu g/mL) and 0.057 nm.L/nmol, respectively. The sensor also successfully differentiates the target analyte from the other abundant elements that are present in the human blood plasma.

2022

Comprehensive comparison of linear and non-linear methodologies for lithium quantification in geological samples using LIBS

Authors
Ferreira, MFS; Capela, D; Silva, NA; Goncalves, F; Lima, A; Guimaraes, D; Jorge, PAS;

Publication
SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART B-ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY

Abstract
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy allows fast chemical analysis of light elements without significant sample preparation, turning it into a promising technique for on-site mining operations. Still, the performance for quantification purposes remains its major caveat, obstructing a broader application of the technique. In this work, we present an extensive comparison of the performances of distinct algorithms for quantification of Lithium in a mining prospection stage, using spectra acquired with both a commercial handheld device and a laboratory prototype. Covering both linear and non-linear methodologies, the results show that, when covering a wide range of concentrations typical on a mining operation, non-linear methodologies manage to achieve errors compatible with a semi-quantitative performance, offering performances better than those obtained with linear methods, which are more affected by saturation and matrix effects. The findings enclosed offer support for future applications in the field and may possibly be generalized for other elements of interest in similar mining environments.

2022

Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Film Coatings for Fiber Optic Sensors

Authors
Silva, D; Monteiro, CS; Silva, SO; Frazao, O; Pinto, JV; Raposo, M; Ribeiro, PA; Serio, S;

Publication
PHOTONICS

Abstract
Thin films of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and titanium (Ti) were deposited onto glass and optical fiber supports through DC magnetron sputtering, and their transmission was characterized with regard to their use in optical fiber-based sensors. Deposition parameters such as oxygen partial pressure, working pressure, and sputtering power were optimized to attain films with a high reflectance. The films deposited on glass supports were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Regarding the deposition parameters, all three parameters were tested simultaneously, changing the working pressure, the sputtering power, and the oxygen percentage. It was possible to conclude that a lower working pressure and higher applied power lead to films with a higher reflectance. Through the analysis of the as-sputtered thin films using X-ray diffraction, the deposition of both Ti and TiO2 films was confirmed. To study the applicability of TiO2 and Ti in fiber sensing, several thin films were deposited in single mode fibers (SMFs) using the sputtering conditions that revealed the most promising results in the glass supports. The sputtered TiO2 and Ti thin films were used as mirrors to increase the visibility of a low-finesse Fabry–Perot cavity and the possible sensing applications were studied.

2022

Optical biosensor for the detection of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in milk samples

Authors
Vasconcelos, H; Matias, A; Mendes, J; Arahjo, J; Dias, B; Jorge, PAS; Saraivaa, C; Coelho, LCC; de Almeida, JMMM;

Publication
OPTICAL SENSING AND DETECTION VII

Abstract
A strategy for the detection of H2O2 as a milk adulterant using a single shot membrane sensor, is presented. Direct quantitative evaluation of H2O2 in raw, skimmed, semi-skimmed and whole milk was carried out based on a chemiluminescence reaction with luminol. For H2O2 water solutions a linear response was attained from 0.0001% to 0.007 %w/w, with a limit of detection of 3x10(-5) %w/w. A coefficient of determination, R-2, greater than 0.97 was achieved, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) not exceeding 10%. In the analyzed milk samples, the lowest H2O2 concentration detected was 0.001% w/w for raw and for skim milk and 0.002%w/w for, semi-skimmed and whole milk. The presented method is original, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective. Due to the achieved sensitivity the method has great potential to be used for H2O2 detection in diverse areas, such as environmental monitoring and food quality.

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