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Publications

Publications by CAP

2022

Development of a Low-Cost Interrogation System Using a MEMS Fabry-Pérot Tunable Filter

Authors
Araújo, JCC; Dias, B; dos Santos, PSS; de Almeida, JMMM; Coelho, LCC;

Publication
Journal of Physics: Conference Series

Abstract
Abstract The interrogation of optic fiber sensors usually relies in complex and costly equipment with low portability due to their size such as Optical Spectrum Analyzers (OSA) or high-resolution spectrometers. Because of this, micro spectrometer devices, such as Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) with Fabry-Pérot tunable filters, are emerging as simpler and compact alternatives capable of being used to acquire spectral information in a wide wavelength band. In this work it is described the development of an interrogation system capable of infrared spectroscopy using a MEMS Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (MEMS-FPI) with a spectral response in the 1350nm to 1650nm range. Its performance is tested with the interrogation of long period fiber gratings both as a refractive index sensor and as a temperature sensor. Deconvolution techniques such as Wiener filtering are used to reduce the impact of the tunable filter’s impulse response in the measured signal. Results are comparable to those obtained using a typical OSA which shows the system’s potential as a cheaper and more transportable alternative.

2022

Long-Period Fiber Gratings Coated with Poly(ethylene glycol) as Relative Humidity Sensors

Authors
Dias, B; de Almeida, JMMM; Coelho, LCC;

Publication
U.Porto Journal of Engineering

Abstract
Relative humidity is an important parameter in controlled environments and is typically monitored using low-cost electrochemical sensors with low resolution and accuracy. This kind of sensors cannot not be implemented in harsh or explosive environments (as in pyrotechnic facilities) due to electrical discharges, or in marine structures where the oxidation of the sensing probe materials changes the sensing response). In these cases, fiber optic sensors can provide solutions due to their intrinsic properties, such as immunity to electromagnetic interference and resistance in harsh environments. This work presents preliminary results regarding the steps of the fabrication of Long-Period Fiber Gratings, the coating processes with a thin layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and its sensing performance to relative humidity, displaying a from 60 to 100%sensitivity of 0.6 nm/%RH in the range of 80 to 100%RH.

2022

Femtosecond laser micromachining of suspended silica-core liquid-cladding waveguides inside a microfluidic channel

Authors
Maia, JM; Viveiros, D; Amorim, VA; Marques, PVS;

Publication
OPTICS AND LASERS IN ENGINEERING

Abstract
This work addresses the fabrication of straight silica-core liquid-cladding suspended waveguides inside a microfluidic channel through fs-laser micromachining. These structures enable the reconfiguration of the waveguide's mode profile and enhance the evanescent interaction between light and analyte. Further, their geometry resembles a tapered optical fiber with the added advantage of being monolithically integrated within a microfluidic platform. The fabrication process includes an additional post-processing thermal treatment responsible for smoothening the waveguide surface and reshaping it into a circular cross-section. Suspended waveguides with a minimum core diameter of 3.8 µm were fabricated. Their insertion losses can be tuned and are mainly affected by mode mismatch between the coupling and suspended waveguides. The transmission spectrum was studied and it was numerically confirmed that it consists of interference between the guided LP01 mode and uncoupled light and of modal interference between the LP01 and LP02 modes. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

2022

Differential Refractometric Biosensor for Reliable Human IgG Detection: Proof of Concept

Authors
Mendes, JP; Coelho, LCC; Jorge, PAS; Pereira, CM;

Publication
BIOSENSORS-BASEL

Abstract
A new sensing platform based on long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) for direct, fast, and selective detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG; Mw = 150 KDa) was developed and characterized. The transducer's high selectivity is based on the specific interaction of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs) design for IgG detection. The sensing scheme is based on differential refractometric measurements, including a correction system based on a non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-coated LPFG, allowing reliable and more sensitive measurements, improving the rejection of false positives in around 30%. The molecular imprinted binding sites were performed on the surface of a LPFG with a sensitivity of about 130 nm/RIU and a FOM of 16 RIU-1. The low-cost and easy to build device was tested in a working range from 1 to 100 nmol/L, revealing a limit of detection (LOD) and a sensitivity of 0.25 nmol/L (0.037 mu g/mL) and 0.057 nm.L/nmol, respectively. The sensor also successfully differentiates the target analyte from the other abundant elements that are present in the human blood plasma.

2022

Optical Strain Gauge Prototype Based on a High Sensitivity Balloon-like Interferometer and Additive Manufacturing

Authors
Cardoso, VHR; Caldas, P; Giraldi, MTR; Frazao, O; Costa, JCWA; Santos, JL;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
An optical strain gauge based on a balloon-like interferometer structure formed by a bent standard single-mode fiber combined with a 3D printer piece has been presented and demonstrated, which can be used to measure displacement. The interferometer has a simple and compact size, easy fabrication, low cost, and is repeatable. The sensor is based on the interference between the core and cladding modes. This is caused by the fiber's curvature because when light propagates through the curved balloon-shaped interferometer region, a portion of it will be released from the core limitation and coupled to the cladding. The balloon has an axial displacement as a result of how the artwork was constructed. The sensor head is sandwiched between two cantilevers such that when there is a displacement, the dimension associated with the micro bend is altered. The sensor response as a function of displacement can be determined using wavelength shift or intensity change interrogation techniques. Therefore, this optical strain gauge is a good option for applications where structure displacement needs to be examined. The sensor presents a sensitivity of 55.014 nm for displacement measurements ranging from 0 to 10 mm and a strain sensitivity of 500.13 pm/mu epsilon.

2022

Temperature-Monitored Fibre Optic Current Sensor Using Channelled-Spectrum Analysis

Authors
Robalinho, P; Melo, M; Frazao, O; Ribeiro, ABL;

Publication
IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS

Abstract

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