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Publications

2022

Ester-based Dielectric Fluid for Power Transformers: Design and Test Experience under the GreenEst Project

Authors
Carvalhosa, S; Leite, H; Soares, M; Branco, F; Sá, CA; Lopes, RC; Santo, JE;

Publication
Journal of Physics: Conference Series

Abstract
Abstract Ester-based dielectric fluids have now been on the market for several decades, providing fire-safe and environmentally friendly alternatives to mineral oils, which have traditionally been used in transformers and other electrical equipment. This opens the door to innovation in power transformers. However, the use of esters-based dielectrics in power transformers is still very limited, especially for the higher voltage levels. The usage of these esters-based dielectrics in higher voltage power transformers is not yet consensual. this work present results with the use of natural esters in power distribution transformers. Tests carried out on mineral oil and natural ester oil found that the ester-based dielectric can withstand higher voltage thresholds for AC and Impulses tests, mainly within the specs of destructive tests, e.g., the natural ester was able to withstand a 185kV impulse without registering dielectric rupture while the natural oil registered a dielectric rupture with a 160kV impulse. Heating and mechanical tests demonstrated that ester-based dielectric oils for power transformers lead to a flow reduction between 16,8% and 18,2% in the cooling system that was design for mineral oils but they achieve a higher heat transfer coefficient, between 0,5% to 5% depending on the location of measurement.

2021

Survey on the advancements of dielectric fluids and experiment studies for distribution power transformers

Authors
Carvalhosa, S; Leite, H; Branco, F; Sá, CA; Moura, AM; Lopes, RC; Soares, M;

Publication
Renewable Energy and Power Quality Journal

Abstract
—The main objective of this work is to summarize the most commonly used dielectric fluids in the power distribution transformers, as well as to discuss what are the latest and the rationale behind those trends. The favorable and unfavorable reasons for any choice behind each of those dielectric fluids will be discussed. Additionally, this work also advances the power distribution transformers health index most commonly used to assess the condition of the transformer.