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About

Graduated in Physics - Optics from the University of Minho (1999), he obtained a Masters in Optoelectronics and Laser from Faculty of Science from University of Porto (2003), a PhD in Physics from Faculty of Science from University of Porto (2011). He is Associate Professor in Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo and Senior Researcher at the Applied Photonics Center INESC TEC. It is author and co-author of over 80 scientific articles related to optical fibers sensors, whispering gallery modes and long period grating.

Interest
Topics
Details

Details

  • Nationality

    Portugal
  • Centre

    Applied Photonics
  • Contacts

    +351220402301
    paulo.caldas@inesctec.pt
Publications

2022

A Simple Optical Sensor Based on Multimodal Interference Superimposed on Additive Manufacturing for Diameter Measurement

Authors
Cardoso, VHR; Caldas, P; Giraldi, MTR; Fernandes, CS; Frazao, O; Costa, JCWA; Santos, JL;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
In many areas, the analysis of a cylindrical structure is necessary, and a form to analyze it is by evaluating the diameter changes. Some areas can be cited: pipelines for oil or gas distribution and radial growth of trees whose diameter changes are directly related to irrigation and the radial expansion since it depends on the water soil deficit. For some species, these radial variations can change in around 5 mm. This paper proposes and experimentally investigates a sensor based on a core diameter mismatch technique for diameter changes measurement. The sensor structure is a combination of a cylindrical piece developed using a 3D printer and a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. The pieces were developed to assist in monitoring the diameter variation. It is formed by splicing an uncoated short section of MMF (Multimode Fiber) between two standard SMFs (Singlemode Fibers) called SMF-MMF-SMF (SMS), where the MMF length is 15 mm. The work is divided into two main parts. Firstly, the sensor was fixed at two points on the first developed piece, and the diameter reduction caused dips or peaks shift of the transmittance spectrum due to curvature and strain influence. The fixation point (FP) distances used are: 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm. Finally, the setup with the best sensitivity was chosen, from first results, to develop another test with an optimization. This optimization is performed in the printed piece where two supports are created so that only the strain influences the sensor. The results showed good sensitivity, reasonable dynamic range, and easy setup reproduction. Therefore, the sensor could be used for diameter variation measurement for proposed applications.

2021

Experimental investigation of a strain gauge sensor based on Fiber Bragg Grating for diameter measurement

Authors
Cardoso, VHR; Caldas, P; Giraldi, MTR; Frazao, O; de Carvalho, CJR; Costa, JCWA; Santos, JL;

Publication
OPTICAL FIBER TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
A strain gauge sensor based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) for diameter measurement is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor is easily fabricated inserting the FBG on the strain gauge—it was fabricated using a 3D printer—and fixing the FBG in two points of this structure. The idea is to vary the diameter of the structure. We developed two experimental setups, the first one is used to evaluate the response of the FBG to strain and the second one to assess the possibility of using the structure developed to monitor the desired parameter. The results demonstrated that the structure can be used as a way to monitor the diameter variation in some applications. The sensor presented a sensitivity of 0.5361 nm/mm and a good linear response of 0.9976 using the Strain Gauge with FBG and fused taper. © 2020 Elsevier Inc.

2021

Arc-Induced Long-Period Fiber Gratings at INESC TEC. Part I: Fabrication, Characterization and Mechanisms of Formation

Authors
Rego, G; Caldas, P; Ivanov, OV;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
In this work, we reviewed the most important achievements of INESC TEC related to the fabrication of long-period fiber gratings using the electric arc technique. We focused on the fabrication setup, the type of fiber used, and the effect of the fabrication parameters on the gratings' transmission spectra. The theory was presented, as well as a discussion on the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the gratings, supported by the measurement of the temperature reached by the fiber during an electric arc discharge.

2021

Arc-induced long-period fiber gratings at inesc tec. Part ii: Properties and applications in optical communications and sensing

Authors
Rego, G; Caldas, P; Ivanov, OV;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
In this work, we review the most important achievements of INESC TEC related to the properties and applications of arc-induced long-period fiber gratings. The polarization dependence loss, the spectral behavior at temperatures ranging from cryogenic up to 1200 °C and under exposure to ultraviolet and gamma radiation is described. The dependence of gratings sensitivity on the fabrication parameters is discussed. Several applications in optical communications and sensing domains are referred. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

2021

Simulation of the Transmission Spectrum of Long-Period Fiber Gratings Structures with a Propagating Acoustic Shock Front

Authors
Ivanov, OV; Caldas, P; Rego, G;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
In this paper, we investigate modification of transmission spectra of long-period fiber grating structures with an acoustic shock front propagating along the fiber. We simulate transmission through inhomogeneous long-period fiber gratings, pi-shift and reflective pi-shift gratings deformed by an acoustic shock front. Coupled mode equations describing interaction of co-propagating modes in a long-period fiber grating structures with inhomogeneous deformation are used for the simulation. Two types of apodization are considered for the grating modulation amplitude, such as uniform and raised-cosine. We demonstrate how the transmission spectrum is produced by interference between the core and cladding modes coupled at several parts of the gratings having different periods. For the pi-shift long-period fiber grating having split spectral notch, the gap between the two dips becomes several times wider in the grating with the acoustic wave front than the gap in the unstrained grating. The behavior of reflective long-period fiber gratings depends on the magnitude of the phase shift near the reflective surface: an additional dip is formed in the 0-shift grating and the short-wavelength dip disappears in the pi-shift grating.