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About

About

Graduated in Physics - Optics from the University of Minho (1999), he obtained a Masters in Optoelectronics and Laser from Faculty of Science from University of Porto (2003), a PhD in Physics from Faculty of Science from University of Porto (2011). He is Associate Professor in Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo and Senior Researcher at the Applied Photonics Center INESC TEC. It is author and co-author of over 80 scientific articles related to optical fibers sensors, whispering gallery modes and long period grating.

Interest
Topics
Details

Details

  • Name

    Paulo Caldas
  • Role

    Senior Researcher
  • Since

    01st October 1998
Publications

2022

A Simple Optical Sensor Based on Multimodal Interference Superimposed on Additive Manufacturing for Diameter Measurement

Authors
Cardoso, VHR; Caldas, P; Giraldi, MTR; Fernandes, CS; Frazao, O; Costa, JCWA; Santos, JL;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
In many areas, the analysis of a cylindrical structure is necessary, and a form to analyze it is by evaluating the diameter changes. Some areas can be cited: pipelines for oil or gas distribution and radial growth of trees whose diameter changes are directly related to irrigation and the radial expansion since it depends on the water soil deficit. For some species, these radial variations can change in around 5 mm. This paper proposes and experimentally investigates a sensor based on a core diameter mismatch technique for diameter changes measurement. The sensor structure is a combination of a cylindrical piece developed using a 3D printer and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The pieces were developed to assist in monitoring the diameter variation. It is formed by splicing an uncoated short section of MMF (Multimode Fiber) between two standard SMFs (Singlemode Fibers) called SMF-MMF-SMF (SMS), where the MMF length is 15 mm. The work is divided into two main parts. Firstly, the sensor was fixed at two points on the first developed piece, and the diameter reduction caused dips or peaks shift of the transmittance spectrum due to curvature and strain influence. The fixation point (FP) distances used are: 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm. Finally, the setup with the best sensitivity was chosen, from first results, to develop another test with an optimization. This optimization is performed in the printed piece where two supports are created so that only the strain influences the sensor. The results showed good sensitivity, reasonable dynamic range, and easy setup reproduction. Therefore, the sensor could be used for diameter variation measurement for proposed applications.

2022

Optical Strain Gauge Prototype Based on a High Sensitivity Balloon-like Interferometer and Additive Manufacturing

Authors
Cardoso, VHR; Caldas, P; Giraldi, MTR; Frazao, O; Costa, JCWA; Santos, JL;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
An optical strain gauge based on a balloon-like interferometer structure formed by a bent standard single-mode fiber combined with a 3D printer piece has been presented and demonstrated, which can be used to measure displacement. The interferometer has a simple and compact size, easy fabrication, low cost, and is repeatable. The sensor is based on the interference between the core and cladding modes. This is caused by the fiber's curvature because when light propagates through the curved balloon-shaped interferometer region, a portion of it will be released from the core limitation and coupled to the cladding. The balloon has an axial displacement as a result of how the artwork was constructed. The sensor head is sandwiched between two cantilevers such that when there is a displacement, the dimension associated with the micro bend is altered. The sensor response as a function of displacement can be determined using wavelength shift or intensity change interrogation techniques. Therefore, this optical strain gauge is a good option for applications where structure displacement needs to be examined. The sensor presents a sensitivity of 55.014 nm for displacement measurements ranging from 0 to 10 mm and a strain sensitivity of 500.13 pm/mu epsilon.

2022

High Sensitivity Cryogenic Temperature Sensors Based on Arc-Induced Long-Period Fiber Gratings

Authors
Ivanov, OV; Caldas, P; Rego, G;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
In this paper, we investigated the evolution of the dispersion curves of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) from room temperature down to 0 K. We considered gratings arc-induced in the SMF28 fiber and in two B/Ge co-doped fibers. Computer simulations were performed based on previously published experimental data. We found that the dispersion curves belonging to the lowest-order cladding modes are the most affected by the temperature changes, but those changes are minute when considering cladding modes with dispersion turning points (DTP) in the telecommunication windows. The temperature sensitivity is higher for gratings inscribed in the B/Ge co-doped fibers near DTP and the optimum grating period can be chosen at room temperature. A temperature sensitivity as high as -850 pm/K can be obtained in the 100-200 K temperature range, while a value of -170 pm/K is reachable at 20 K.

2022

A ?-Shaped Bending-Optical Fiber Sensor for the Measurement of Radial variation in Cylindrical Structures

Authors
Cardoso, V; Caldas, P; Giraldi, MTR; Frazão, O; Costa, J; Santos, JL;

Publication
EPJ Web of Conferences

Abstract
This work presents preliminary results of the ? -shaped sensor mounted on support designed by additive manufacturing (AM). This sensor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to measure the radial variation of cylindrical structures. The sensor presents an easy fabrication. The support was developed to work using the principle of leverage. The sensing head is curled between two points so that the dimension associated with the macro bend is changed when there is a radial variation. The results indicate that the proposed sensor structure can monitor radial variation in applications such as pipelines and trees.

2021

Experimental investigation of a strain gauge sensor based on Fiber Bragg Grating for diameter measurement

Authors
Cardoso, VHR; Caldas, P; Giraldi, MTR; Frazao, O; de Carvalho, CJR; Costa, JCWA; Santos, JL;

Publication
OPTICAL FIBER TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
A strain gauge sensor based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) for diameter measurement is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor is easily fabricated inserting the FBG on the strain gauge-it was fabricated using a 3D printer-and fixing the FBG in two points of this structure. The idea is to vary the diameter of the structure. We developed two experimental setups, the first one is used to evaluate the response of the FBG to strain and the second one to assess the possibility of using the structure developed to monitor the desired parameter. The results demonstrated that the structure can be used as a way to monitor the diameter variation in some applications. The sensor presented a sensitivity of 0.5361 nm/mm and a good linear response of 0.9976 using the Strain Gauge with FBG and fused taper.