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  • Name

    Maria Rosário Ribeiro
  • Cluster

    Computer Science
  • Role

    Research Assistant
  • Since

    01st September 2018


Nonlinear Methods Most Applied to Heart-Rate Time Series: A Review

Henriques, T; Ribeiro, M; Teixeira, A; Castro, L; Antunes, L; Costa Santos, C;


The heart-rate dynamics are one of the most analyzed physiological interactions. Many mathematical methods were proposed to evaluate heart-rate variability. These methods have been successfully applied in research to expand knowledge concerning the cardiovascular dynamics in healthy as well as in pathological conditions. Notwithstanding, they are still far from clinical practice. In this paper, we aim to review the nonlinear methods most used to assess heart-rate dynamics. We focused on methods based on concepts of chaos, fractality, and complexity: Poincaré plot, recurrence plot analysis, fractal dimension (and the correlation dimension), detrended fluctuation analysis, Hurst exponent, Lyapunov exponent entropies (Shannon, conditional, approximate, sample entropy, and multiscale entropy), and symbolic dynamics. We present the description of the methods along with their most notable applications.