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Publications

2021

SDR Proof-of-Concept of Full-Duplex Jamming for Enhanced Physical Layer Security

Authors
Silva, A; Gomes, M; Vilela, JP; Harrison, WK;

Publication
SENSORS

Abstract
In order to secure wireless communications, we consider the usage of physical-layer security (PLS) mechanisms (i.e., coding for secrecy mechanisms) combined with self-interference generation. We present a prototype implementation of a scrambled coding for secrecy mechanisms with interference generation by the legitimate receiver and the cancellation of the effect of self-interference (SI). Regarding the SI cancellation, four state-of-the-art algorithms were considered: Least mean square (LMS), normalized least mean square (NLMS), recursive least squares (RLS) and QR decomposition recursive least squares (QRDRLS). The prototype implementation is performed in real-world software-defined radio (SDR) devices using GNU-Radio, showing that the LMS outperforms all other algorithms considered (NLMS, RLS and QRDRLS), being the best choice to use in this situation (SI cancellation). It was also shown that it is possible to secure communication using only noise generation by the legitimate receiver, though a variation of the packet loss rate (PLR) and the bit error rate (BER) gaps is observed when moving from the fairest to an advantageous or a disadvantageous scenario. Finally, when noise generation was combined with the adapted scrambled coding for secrecy with a hidden key scheme, a noteworthy security improvement was observed resulting in an increased BER for Eve with minor interference to Bob.

2020

Optimal Mapper for OFDM With Index Modulation: A Spectro-Computational Analysis

Authors
Queiroz, S; Vilela, JP; Monteiro, E;

Publication
IEEE ACCESS

Abstract
In this work, we present an optimal mapper for OFDM with index modulation (OFDM-IM). By optimal we mean the mapper achieves the lowest possible asymptotic computational complexity (CC) when the spectral efficiency (SE) gain over OFDM maximizes. We propose the spectro-computational (SC) analysis to capture the trade-off between CC and SE and to demonstrate that an -subcarrier OFDM-IM mapper must run in exact time complexity. We show that an OFDM-IM mapper running faster than such complexity cannot reach the maximal SE whereas one running slower nullifies the mapping throughput for arbitrarily large . We demonstrate our theoretical findings by implementing an open-source library that supports all DSP steps to map/demap an-subcarrier complex frequency-domain OFDM-IM symbol. Our implementation supports different index selector algorithms and is the first to enable the SE maximization while preserving the same time and space asymptotic complexities of the classic OFDM mapper.

2020

Impact of Frequency of Location Reports on the Privacy Level of Geo-indistinguishability

Authors
Mendes, R; Cunha, M; Vilela, JP;

Publication
Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies

Abstract
AbstractLocation privacy has became an emerging topic due to the pervasiveness of Location-Based Services (LBSs). When sharing location, a certain degree of privacy can be achieved through the use of Location Privacy-Preserving Mechanisms (LPPMs), in where an obfuscated version of the exact user location is reported instead. However, even obfuscated location reports disclose information which poses a risk to privacy. Based on the formal notion of differential privacy, Geo-indistinguishability has been proposed to design LPPMs that limit the amount of information that is disclosed to a potential adversary observing the reports. While promising, this notion considers reports to be independent from each other, thus discarding the potential threat that arises from exploring the correlation between reports. This assumption might hold for the sporadic release of data, however, there is still no formal nor quantitative boundary between sporadic and continuous reports and thus we argue that the consideration of independence is valid depending on the frequency of reports made by the user. This work intends to fill this research gap through a quantitative evaluation of the impact on the privacy level of Geo-indistinguishability under different frequency of reports. Towards this end, state-of-the-art localization attacks and a tracking attack are implemented against a Geo-indistinguishable LPPM under several values of privacy budget and the privacy level is measured along different frequencies of updates using real mobility data.

2020

Maximal Spectral Efficiency of OFDM With Index Modulation Under Polynomial Space Complexity

Authors
Queiroz, S; Silva, W; Vilela, JP; Monteiro, E;

Publication
IEEE WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS

Abstract
In this letter, we demonstrate a mapper that enables all waveforms of OFDM with Index Modulation (OFDM-IM) while preserving polynomial time and space computational complexities. Enabling all OFDM-IM waveforms maximizes the spectral efficiency (SE) gain over the classic OFDM but, as far as we know, the computational overhead of the resulting mapper remains conjectured as prohibitive across the OFDM-IM literature. We show that the largest number of binomial coefficient calculations performed by the original OFDM-IM mapper is polynomial on the number of subcarriers, even under the setup that maximizes the SE gain over OFDM. Also, such coefficients match the entries of the so-called Pascal's triangle (PT). Thus, by assisting the OFDM-IM mapper with a PT table, we show that the maximum SE gain over OFDM can be achieved under polynomial (rather than exponential) time and space complexities.

2020

SDR Testbed of Full-Duplex Jamming for Secrecy

Authors
Silva, A; Gomes, MAC; Vilela, JP; Harrison, WK;

Publication
2020 12th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, CSNDSP 2020

Abstract
In order to secure wireless communications, we consider the usage of physical-layer security (PLS) mechanisms (i.e. coding for secrecy mechanisms) combined with self-interference generation. We present a prototype implementation of a scrambled coding for secrecy mechanism with interference generation by the legitimate receiver and the cancellation of the effect of self-interference (SI). Regarding the SI cancellation, two algorithms were evaluated: least mean square and recursive least squares. The prototype implementation is performed in real-world software-defined radio (SDR) devices using GNU-Radio. © 2020 IEEE.

Supervised
thesis

2020

Privacy-Preserving Mechanisms for Heterogeneous Data Types

Author
Mariana da Cruz Cunha

Institution
UP-FCUP