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Publications

2019

Spillovers, subsidies, and second-best socially optimal R&D

Authors
Amir, R; Liu, H; Machowska, D; Resende, J;

Publication
Journal of Public Economic Theory

Abstract
This paper provides a thorough second-best welfare analysis of the standard two-stage model of R&D/product market competition with R&D spillovers. The planner's solution is compared to the standard non-cooperative scenario, the R&D cartel, and the cartelized research joint venture (or joint lab). We introduce the notion of a social joint lab, as a way for the planner to avoid wasteful R&D duplication. With no spillovers, the non-cooperative scenario, the joint lab, and the second-best planner's solutions coincide. However, with spillovers, all three scenarios yield R&D investments that fall short of the socially optimal level. To shed light on the role of the spillover level on these comparisons, we observe that the gaps between the market outcomes and the planners solutions widen as the spillover parameter increases. Finally, we establish that a social planner and a social joint lab solutions may be achieved starting from any of the three scenarios by offering firms respective suitably weighted quadratic R&D subsidization schedules. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

2019

Complementary Monopolies with asymmetric information

Authors
Laussel, D; Resende, J;

Publication
Economic Theory

Abstract
We investigate how asymmetric information on final demand affects strategic interaction between a downstream monopolist and a set of upstream monopolists, who independently produce complementary inputs. We study an intrinsic private common agency game in which each supplier i independently proposes a pricing schedule contract to the assembler, specifying the supplier’s payment as a function of the assembler’s purchase of input i. We provide a necessary and sufficient equilibrium condition. A lot of equilibria satisfy this condition but there is a unique Pareto-undominated Nash equilibrium from the suppliers’ point of view. In this equilibrium, there are unavoidable efficiency losses due to excessively low sales of the good. However, suppliers may be able to limit these distortions by implicitly coordinating on an equilibrium with a rigid (positive) output in bad demand circumstances. © 2019, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

2019

Personalized pricing and advertising: Who are the winners?

Authors
Esteves, RB; Resende, J;

Publication
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION

Abstract
This paper investigates who wins and who loses when firms depart from a mass advertising/uniform pricing strategy (bench-mark model) to a targeted advertising/price discrimination one. Considering a duopoly market in which firms simultaneously compete in prices and advertising decisions, we examine the competitive and welfare effects of personalized pricing with targeted advertising by comparing equilibrium outcomes under customized advertising/ pricing decisions to the results arising under mass advertising and uniform pricing. We show that, when both firms compete in both market segments, all segment consumers are expected to pay higher average prices under the personalized advertising/pricing strategy. We also show that, in the context of our simultaneous game, targeted advertising with price discrimination might boost firms' profits in comparison to the case of mass advertising and uniform prices. The overall welfare effects of the personalized strategy are ambiguous. However, even when the personalized strategy boosts overall welfare, consumers might all be worse-off. Thus the paper gives support to concerns that have been raised re-garding the firms' ability to adopt personalized strategies to boost profits at the expense of consumers.