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About

About

Francesco Renna received the Laurea Specialistica degree in telecommunication engineering and the Ph.D. degree in information engineering, both from the University of Padova, Padova, Italy, in 2006 and 2011, respectively. Between 2007 and 2019, he held Visiting Researcher and Postdoctoral appointments with Infineon Technology AG, Princeton University, Georgia Institute of Technology (Lorraine Campus), Supelec, University of Porto, Duke University, University College London, and University of Cambridge. From 2019 to 2022, he has been an Assistant Researcher at Instituto de Telecomunicações, Porto. Since 2023, he has been an Assistant Professor at the University of Porto, Portugal. Since 2022, he is a researcher with INESC TEC.


?His research interests include high-dimensional information processing and biomedical signal and image processing. Dr. Renna was the recipient of a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship from the European Commission and a Research Contract within the Scientific Employment Stimulus program from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology.

Interest
Topics
Details

Details

  • Name

    Francesco Renna
  • Since

    01st June 2020
  • Nationality

    Itália
  • Contacts

    +351222094000
    francesco.renna@inesctec.pt
003
Publications

2023

Beyond Heart Murmur Detection: Automatic Murmur Grading From Phonocardiogram

Authors
Elola, A; Aramendi, E; Oliveira, J; Renna, F; Coimbra, MT; Reyna, MA; Sameni, R; Clifford, GD; Rad, AB;

Publication
IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS

Abstract
Objective: Murmurs are abnormal heart sounds, identified by experts through cardiac auscultation. The murmur grade, a quantitative measure of the murmur intensity, is strongly correlated with the patient's clinical condition. This work aims to estimate each patient's murmur grade (i.e., absent, soft, loud) from multiple auscultation location phonocardiograms (PCGs) of a large population of pediatric patients from a low-resource rural area. Methods: The Mel spectrogram representation of each PCG recording is given to an ensemble of 15 convolutional residual neural networks with channel-wise attention mechanisms to classify each PCG recording. The final murmur grade for each patient is derived based on the proposed decision rule and considering all estimated labels for available recordings. The proposed method is cross-validated on a dataset consisting of 3456 PCG recordings from 1007 patients using a stratified ten-fold cross-validation. Additionally, the method was tested on a hidden test set comprised of 1538 PCG recordings from 442 patients. Results: The overall cross-validation performances for patient-level murmur gradings are 86.3% and 81.6% in terms of the unweighted average of sensitivities and F1-scores, respectively. The sensitivities (and F1-scores) for absent, soft, and loud murmurs are 90.7% (93.6%), 75.8% (66.8%), and 92.3% (84.2%), respectively. On the test set, the algorithm achieves an unweighted average of sensitivities of 80.4% and an F1-score of 75.8%. Conclusions: This study provides a potential approach for algorithmic pre-screening in low-resource settings with relatively high expert screening costs. Significance: The proposed method represents a significant step beyond detection of murmurs, providing characterization of intensity, which may provide an enhanced classification of clinical outcomes.

2023

Markov-Based Neural Networks for Heart Sound Segmentation: Using Domain Knowledge in a Principled Way

Authors
Martins, ML; Coimbra, MT; Renna, F;

Publication
IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS

Abstract
This work considers the problem of segmenting heart sounds into their fundamental components. We unify statistical and data-driven solutions by introducing Markov-based Neural Networks (MNNs), a hybrid end-to-end framework that exploits Markov models as statistical inductive biases for an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) discriminator. We show that an MNN leveraging a simple one-dimensional Convolutional ANN significantly outperforms two recent purely data-driven solutions for this task in two publicly available datasets: PhysioNet 2016 (Sensitivity: 0.947 +/- 0.02; Positive Predictive Value : 0.937 +/- 0.025) and the CirCor DigiScope 2022 (Sensitivity: 0.950 +/- 0.008; Positive Predictive Value: 0.943 +/- 0.012). We also propose a novel gradient-based unsupervised learning algorithm that effectively makes the MNN adaptive to unseen datum sampled from unknown distributions. We perform a cross dataset analysis and show that an MNN pre-trained in the CirCor DigiScope 2022 can benefit from an average improvement of 3.90% Positive Predictive Value on unseen observations from the PhysioNet 2016 dataset using this method.

2023

Detecting wildlife trafficking in images from online platforms: A test case using deep learning with pangolin images

Authors
Cardoso, AS; Bryukhova, S; Renna, F; Reino, L; Xu, C; Xiao, ZX; Correia, R; Di Minin, E; Ribeiro, J; Vaz, AS;

Publication
BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION

Abstract
E-commerce has become a booming market for wildlife trafficking, as online platforms are increasingly more accessible and easier to navigate by sellers, while still lacking adequate supervision. Artificial intelligence models, and specifically deep learning, have been emerging as promising tools for the automated analysis and monitoring of digital online content pertaining to wildlife trade. Here, we used and fine-tuned freely available artificial intelligence models (i.e., convolutional neural networks) to understand the potential of these models to identify instances of wildlife trade. We specifically focused on pangolin species, which are among the most trafficked mammals globally and receiving increasing trade attention since the COVID-19 pandemic. Our convolutional neural networks were trained using online images (available from iNaturalist, Flickr and Google) displaying both traded and non-traded pangolin settings. The trained models showed great performances, being able to identify over 90 % of potential instances of pangolin trade in the considered imagery dataset. These instances included the showcasing of pangolins in popular marketplaces (e.g., wet markets and cages), and the displaying of commonly traded pangolin parts and derivates (e.g., scales) online. Nevertheless, not all instances of pangolin trade could be identified by our models (e.g., in images with dark colours and shaded areas), leaving space for further research developments. The methodological developments and results from this exploratory study represent an advancement in the monitoring of online wildlife trade. Complementing our approach with other forms of online data, such as text, would be a way forward to deliver more robust monitoring tools for online trafficking.

2023

Fractal Bilinear Deep Neural Network Models for Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Detection

Authors
Pedroso, M; Martins, ML; Libânio, D; Dinis-Ribeiro, M; Coimbra, M; Renna, F;

Publication
2023 IEEE EMBS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS, BHI

Abstract
Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia (GIM) is a precancerous gastric lesion and its early detection facilitates patient followup, thus lowering significantly the risk of death by gastric cancer. However, effective screening of this condition is a very challenging task, resulting low intra and inter-observer concordance. Computer assisted diagnosis systems leveraging deep neural networks (DNNs) have emerged as a way to mitigate these ailments. Notwithstanding, these approaches typically require large datasets in order to learn invariance to the extreme variations typically present in Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) still frames, such as perspective, illumination, and scale. Hence, we propose to combine a priori information regarding texture characteristics of GIM with data-driven DNN solutions. In particular, we define two different models that treat pre-trained DNNs as general features extractors, whose pairwise interactions with a collection of highly invariant local texture descriptors grounded on fractal geometry are computed by means of an outer product in the embedding space. Our experiments show that these models outperform a baseline DNN by a significant margin over several metrics (e.g., area under the curve (AUC) 0.792 vs. 0.705) in a dataset comprised of EGD narrow-band images. Our best model measures double the positive likelihood ratio when compared to a baseline GIM detector.

2022

The CirCor DigiScope Dataset: From Murmur Detection to Murmur Classification

Authors
Oliveira, J; Renna, F; Costa, PD; Nogueira, M; Oliveira, C; Ferreira, C; Jorge, A; Mattos, S; Hatem, T; Tavares, T; Elola, A; Rad, AB; Sameni, R; Clifford, GD; Coimbra, MT;

Publication
IEEE JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL AND HEALTH INFORMATICS

Abstract
Cardiac auscultation is one of the most cost-effective techniques used to detect and identify many heart conditions. Computer-assisted decision systems based on auscultation can support physicians in their decisions. Unfortunately, the application of such systems in clinical trials is still minimal since most of them only aim to detect the presence of extra or abnormal waves in the phonocardiogram signal, i.e., only a binary ground truth variable (normal vs abnormal) is provided. This is mainly due to the lack of large publicly available datasets, where a more detailed description of such abnormal waves (e.g., cardiac murmurs) exists. To pave the way to more effective research on healthcare recommendation systems based on auscultation, our team has prepared the currently largest pediatric heart sound dataset. A total of 5282 recordings have been collected from the four main auscultation locations of 1568 patients, in the process, 215780 heart sounds have been manually annotated. Furthermore, and for the first time, each cardiac murmur has been manually annotated by an expert annotator according to its timing, shape, pitch, grading, and quality. In addition, the auscultation locations where the murmur is present were identified as well as the auscultation location where the murmur is detected more intensively. Such detailed description for a relatively large number of heart sounds may pave the way for new machine learning algorithms with a real-world application for the detection and analysis of murmur waves for diagnostic purposes.

Supervised
thesis

2022

Next Best Action Recommendation

Author
Rui Jorge Eduardo Ramos

Institution
UP-FCUP

2022

Online Process Extractor and Updater

Author
Sónia Rafaela Costa da Rocha

Institution
UP-FCUP

2021

Deep learning for gastric cancer detection

Author
Gabriel Trovão Pereira Lima

Institution
UP-FCUP

2021

Deep convolutional neural networks for gastric landmark detection

Author
Inês Filipa Fernandes Videira Lopes

Institution
UA-UA

2016

Fingered Arm Robot Programming by Demonstration System for Human Like Assembly Applications

Author
Ricardo Nuno Magalhães Borges

Institution
UP-FEUP