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Detalhes

Detalhes

013
Publicações

2022

Effects of Pulse Duration in Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Autores
Ferreira, MFS; Silva, NA; Guimarães, D; Martins, RC; Jorge, PAS;

Publicação
U.Porto Journal of Engineering

Abstract
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique that leverages atomic emission towards element identification and quantification. While the potential of the technology is vast, it still struggles with obstacles such as the variability of the technique. In recent years, several methods have exploited modifications to the standard implementation to work around this problem, mostly focused on the laser side to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the emission. In this paper, we explore the effect of pulse duration on the detected signal intensity using a tunable LIBS system that consists of a versatile fiber laser, capable of emitting square-shaped pulses with a duration ranging from 10 to 100 ns. Our results show that, by tuning the duration of the pulse, it is possible to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of relevant elemental emission lines, an effect that we relate with the computed plasma temperature and associated density for the ion species. Despite the limitations of the work due to the low-resolution and small range of the spectrometer used, the preliminary results pave an interesting path towards the design of controllable LIBS systems that can be tailored to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and thus be useful for the deployment of more sensitive instruments both for qualitative and quantitative purposes.

2022

Canopy VIS-NIR spectroscopy and self-learning artificial intelligence for a generalised model of predawn leaf water potential in Vitis vinifera

Autores
Tosin, R; Martins, R; Pocas, I; Cunha, M;

Publicação
BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Abstract
This paper focuses on predicting predawn leaf water potential through a self-learning artificial intelligence (SL-AI) algorithm, a novel spectral processing algorithm that is based on the search for covariance modes, providing a direct relationship between spectral information and plant constituents. The SL-AI algorithm was applied in a dataset containing 847 observations obtained with a handheld hyperspectral spectroradiometer (400–1010 nm), structured as: three grapevine cultivars (Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca and Tinta Barroca), collected in three years (2014, 2015 and 2017), in two test sites in the renowned Douro Wine Region, northeast of Portugal. The ?pd SL-AI quantification was tested both in regressive (R2 = 0.97, MAPE = 18.30%) and classification (three classes; overall accuracy = 86.27%) approaches, where the radiation absorption spectrum zones of the chlorophylls, xanthophyll and water were identified along the vegetative growth cycle. The dataset was also tested with Artificial Neural Networks with Principal Component Analysis (ANN-PCA) and Partial Least Square (PLS), which presented worse performance when compared to SL-AI in the regressive (ANN-PCA - R2 = 0.85, MAPE = 43.64%; PLS - R2 = 0.94, MAPE = 28.76%) and classification (ANN-PCA - overall accuracy: 72.37%; PLS - overall accuracy: 73.79%) approaches. The ?pd modelled with SL-AI demonstrated, through hyperspectral reflectance, a cause-effect of the grapevine's hydric status with the absorbance of bands related to chlorophyll, xanthophylls and water. This cause-effect interaction could be explored to identify cultivars and cultural practices, hydric, heating and lighting stresses. © 2022 IAgrE

2021

Grape Bunch Detection at Different Growth Stages Using Deep Learning Quantized Models

Autores
Aguiar, AS; Magalhaes, SA; dos Santos, FN; Castro, L; Pinho, T; Valente, J; Martins, R; Boaventura Cunha, J;

Publicação
AGRONOMY-BASEL

Abstract
The agricultural sector plays a fundamental role in our society, where it is increasingly important to automate processes, which can generate beneficial impacts in the productivity and quality of products. Perception and computer vision approaches can be fundamental in the implementation of robotics in agriculture. In particular, deep learning can be used for image classification or object detection, endowing machines with the capability to perform operations in the agriculture context. In this work, deep learning was used for the detection of grape bunches in vineyards considering different growth stages: the early stage just after the bloom and the medium stage where the grape bunches present an intermediate development. Two state-of-the-art single-shot multibox models were trained, quantized, and deployed in a low-cost and low-power hardware device, a Tensor Processing Unit. The training input was a novel and publicly available dataset proposed in this work. This dataset contains 1929 images and respective annotations of grape bunches at two different growth stages, captured by different cameras in several illumination conditions. The models were benchmarked and characterized considering the variation of two different parameters: the confidence score and the intersection over union threshold. The results showed that the deployed models could detect grape bunches in images with a medium average precision up to 66.96%. Since this approach uses low resources, a low-cost and low-power hardware device that requires simplified models with 8 bit quantization, the obtained performance was satisfactory. Experiments also demonstrated that the models performed better in identifying grape bunches at the medium growth stage, in comparison with grape bunches present in the vineyard after the bloom, since the second class represents smaller grape bunches, with a color and texture more similar to the surrounding foliage, which complicates their detection.

2021

Synthesis of Catechol Derived Rosamine Dyes and Their Reactivity toward Biogenic Amines

Autores
Monteiro Silva, F; Queiros, C; Leite, A; Rodriguez, MT; Rojo, MJ; Torroba, T; Martins, RC; Silva, AMG; Rangel, M;

Publicação
MOLECULES

Abstract
Functional organic dyes play a key role in many fields, namely in biotechnology and medical diagnosis. Herein, we report two novel 2,3- and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl substituted rosamines (3 and 4, respectively) that were successfully synthesized through a microwave-assisted protocol. The best reaction yields were obtained for rosamine 4, which also showed the most interesting photophysical properties, specially toward biogenic amines (BAs). Several amines including n- and t-butylamine, cadaverine, and putrescine cause spectral changes of 4, in UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra, which are indicative of their potential application as an effective tool to detect amines in acetonitrile solutions. In the gas phase, the probe response is more expressive for spermine and putrescine. Additionally, we found that methanolic solutions of rosamine 4 and n-butylamine undergo a pink to yellow color change over time, which has been attributed to the formation of a new compound. The latter was isolated and identified as 5 (9-aminopyronin), whose solutions exhibit a remarkable increase in fluorescence intensity together with a shift toward more energetic wavelengths. Other 9-aminopyronins 6a, 6b, 7a, and 7b were obtained from methanolic solutions of 4 with putrescine and cadaverine, demonstrating the potential of this new xanthene entity to react with primary amines.

2021

X-ray Fluorescence and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Analysis of Li-Rich Minerals in Veins from Argemela Tin Mine, Central Portugal

Autores
Ribeiro, R; Capela, D; Ferreira, M; Martins, R; Jorge, P; Guimaraes, D; Lima, A;

Publicação
MINERALS

Abstract
In this work, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analyses were applied to samples of quartz, montebrasite, and turquoise hydrothermal veins in the Argemela Tin Mine (Central Portugal). Montebrasite (LiAl(PO4)(OH,F)) is potentially the main ore mineral; with its alteration, lithium (Li) can disseminate into other minerals. A hand sample was cut and analyzed by XRF and LIBS for several elements of interest including Cu, P, Al, Si, and Li. Although XRF cannot measure Li, results from its analysis are effective for distinguishing turquoise from montebrasite. LIBS analysis complemented this study, making it possible to conclude that turquoise does not contain any significant Li in its structure. The difference in spot size between the techniques (5 mm vs. 300 µm for XRF and LIBS, respectively) resulted in a poorer performance by XRF in accurately identifying mixed minerals. A thin section was petrographically characterized and mapped using LIBS. The mapping results demonstrate the possibility of the successful identification of minerals and their alterations on a thin section. The results of XRF analysis and LIBS mapping in petrographic sections demonstrate the efficacy of these methods as tools for element and mineral identification, which can be important in exploration and mining phases, complementing more traditional techniques.

Teses
supervisionadas

2020

Metodologias e Tecnologias para a previsão dinâmica da qualidade dafruta -do campo ao prato

Autor
Ana Patrícia Ferreira Vicente da Silva

Instituição
UP-FCUP

2020

Fiber Laser Plasma Spectroscopy for Real-Time

Autor
Miguel Fernandes Soares Ferreira

Instituição
UP-FCUP

2019

Fiber Laser Plasma Spectroscopy for Real-Time

Autor
Miguel Fernandes Soares Ferreira

Instituição
UP-FCUP

2016

Knee simulation system to prevent injuries in volleyball athletes

Autor
João Miguel de Oliveira Ferreira da Cunha

Instituição
UP-FEUP