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002
Publicações

2019

A study of lead uptake and distribution in horns from lead-dosed goats using synchrotron radiation-induced micro X-ray fluorescence elemental imaging

Autores
Tehrani, MW; Huang, R; Guimaraes, D; Smieska, L; Woll, A; Parsons, PJ;

Publicação
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology

Abstract
Objective: The principal goal of this study was to investigate the uptake and distribution of lead (Pb) in the horns of Pb-dosed goats, and to explore possible links to their historical Pb dosing records. Horn is a keratinized material that grows in discrete increments with the potential to preserve the historical record of past environmental exposures. While previous studies have leveraged this potential to examine environmental and biological phenomena in horns, Pb uptake has never been explored. Methods: Horns were collected post-mortem from three goats that had been previously used to produce blood lead reference materials for the New York State proficiency testing program. The animals were periodically dosed with lead acetate, administered orally in a capsule, over a 5 to 8-year period. Horn cross sections were taken from each animal and analyzed using synchrotron radiation-induced micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-µXRF) at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Results: Elemental distribution maps were obtained by SR-µXRF for Pb, Ca, S, Se, and three other elements (Br, Zn and Cu), with values reported quantitatively as a mass fraction (µg/g for trace elements and mg/g for Ca and S). Accumulations of Pb were clearly visible as a series of narrow “rings” in each of the horn samples analyzed. The elements Ca, S, Br, Zn, and Cu were also detected as discrete rings within each cross-section, with Br strongly correlated with S in the samples examined. A marginal increase in Se may coincide with Pb accumulation in horn cross-sections. Annual mineralization estimates based on the relative distribution of Ca and S were used to establish a tentative timeline for horn growth, with each timeline linked to the pattern of Pb accumulation in the corresponding horn cross-section sample. Conclusions: Following ingestion, absorbed Pb is eventually deposited into caprine horns, resulting in discrete accumulations or “rings.” Elemental mapping by SR-µXRF clearly show Ca-rich layers that vary with annual periodicity, consistent with previous reports of horn mineralization. Localized enrichment of Cu, Zn, Br and S appear to coincide with the keratinized regions related to the annual growth ring pattern in horns. Spatial analysis of horns for Pb accumulation may be useful as a qualitative marker of time-resolved exposures that may reflect specific periods of acute Pb absorption. © 2019 Elsevier GmbH

2019

Application of a novel LIBS prototype as an analytical grade tool for Li quantification in pegmatite samples

Autores
Guimaraes, D; Ferreira, MFS; Ribeiro, R; Dias, C; Lima, A; Martins, RC; Jorge, PAS;

Publicação
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

Abstract
A high-resolution advanced laser induced breakdown spectroscopy prototype was used to quantify lithium (Li) in lithiniferous rocks. Samples were collected from Barroso's mine (Portugal), claimed as Western Europe's largest spodumene Li discovery. 51 samples from a reverse circulation drill were collected, one for each meter interval, dried, milled, pressed into pellets and further analyzed by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Quantification was attempted using either linear models based on the intensity of selected Li spectral lines or advanced chemometrics methods. The latter was very successful, with correlation coefficients of 0.97 against certified laboratory results. © 2019 SPIE.

2019

Plasma control by pattern recognition in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

Autores
Ferreira, MFS; Guimaraes, D; Jorge, PAS; Martins, RC;

Publicação
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

Abstract
A low-computational intensive laser control approach is proposed for implementing an embedded control system, using pattern recognition by relevant principal component analysis for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy applications. The laser energy is directly related to the resulting spectral pattern and is determined by iterations in the feature space. Results show that single shot iterations until optimum energy can be significantly reduced by pattern recognition. A performance benchmark with minerals, alloys and pellets from material collected from a drill demonstrated an average of 50% improvement, significantly reducing sample deterioration and improving measurement safety. © 2019 SPIE.

2018

Characterization of arsenic in dried baby shrimp (Acetes sp.) using synchrotron-based X-ray spectrometry and LC coupled to ICP-MS/MS

Autores
Guimaraes, D; Roberts, AA; Tehrani, MW; Huang, R; Smieska, L; Woll, AR; Lin, S; Parsons, PJ;

Publicação
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

Abstract
The arsenic content of dried baby shrimp (Acetes sp.) was investigated as part of an independent field study of human exposure to toxic metals/metalloids among the ethnic Chinese community located in Upstate New York. The dried baby shrimp were analyzed in a home environment using a portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument based on monochromatic excitation. Study participants had obtained their dried baby shrimp either from a local Chinese market or prepared them at home. The shrimp are typically between 10-20 mm in size and are consumed whole, without separating the tail from the head. Elevated levels of As were detected using portable XRF, ranging between 5-30 µg g-1. Shrimp samples were taken to the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) for Synchrotron Radiation µXRF (SR-µXRF) elemental mapping using a 384-pixel Maia detector system. The Maia detector provided high resolution trace element images for As, Ca, and Br, (among others) and showed localized accumulation of As within the shrimp's cephalothorax (head), and various abdominal segments. As quantification by SR-µXRF was performed using a lobster hepatopancreas reference material pellet (NRC-CNRC TORT-2), with results in good agreement with both portable XRF and ICP-MS. Additional As characterization using µX-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (µXANES) with the Maia XRF detector at CHESS identified arsenobetaine and/or arsenocholine as the possible As species present. Further arsenic speciation analysis by LC-ICP-MS/MS confirmed that the majority of As (>95%) is present as the largely non-toxic arsenobetaine species with trace amounts of arsenocholine, methylated As and inorganic As species detected. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

2018

Development of a new system for real-time detection of radon using scintillating optical fibers

Autores
Monteiro, CS; Coelho, L; Barbosa, SM; Guimarães, D;

Publicação
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers

Abstract
A remote sensor for radon continuous measurement using polymeric scintillation optical fibers was developed and evaluated. Successful preliminary results showed detection of natural occurring radon from a container with rocks rich in uranium oxides. © OSA 2018 © 2018 The Author(s)