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Publicações

2021

Thermally Stimulated Desorption Optical Fiber-Based Interrogation System: An Analysis of Graphene Oxide Layers’ Stability

Autores
Raposo, M; Xavier, C; Monteiro, C; Silva, S; Frazao, O; Zagalo, P; Ribeiro, PA;

Publicação
Photonics

Abstract
Thin graphene oxide (GO) film layers are being widely used as sensing layers in different types of electrical and optical sensor devices. GO layers are particularly popular because of their tuned interface reflectivity. The stability of GO layers is fundamental for sensor device reliability, particularly in complex aqueous environments such as wastewater. In this work, the stability of GO layers in layer-by-layer (LbL) films of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and GO was investigated. The results led to the following conclusions: PEI/GO films grow linearly with the number of bilayers as long as the adsorption time is kept constant; the adsorption kinetics of a GO layer follow the behavior of the adsorption of polyelectrolytes; and the interaction associated with the growth of these films is of the ionic type since the desorption activation energy has a value of 119 ± 17 kJ/mol. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that PEI/GO films are suitable for application in optical fiber sensor devices; most importantly, an optical fiber-based interrogation setup can easily be adapted to investigate in situ desorption via a thermally stimulated process. In addition, it is possible to draw inferences about film stability in solution in a fast, reliable way when compared with the traditional ones.

2021

Acoustic Optical Fiber Sensor Based on Graphene Oxide Membrane

Autores
Monteiro, CS; Raposo, M; Ribeiro, PA; Silva, SO; Frazão, O;

Publicação
Sensors

Abstract
A Fabry–Pérot acoustic sensor based on a graphene oxide membrane was developed with the aim to achieve a faster and simpler fabrication procedure when compared to similar graphene-based acoustic sensors. In addition, the proposed sensor was fabricated using methods that reduce chemical hazards and environmental impacts. The developed sensor, with an optical cavity of around 246 µm, showed a constant reflected signal amplitude of 6.8 ± 0.1 dB for 100 nm wavelength range. The sensor attained a wideband operation range between 20 and 100 kHz, with a maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 32.7 dB at 25 kHz. The stability and sensitivity to temperatures up to 90 °C was also studied. Moreover, the proposed sensor offers the possibility to be applied as a wideband microphone or to be applied in more complex systems for structural analysis or imaging.

2021

Optical Fiber Sensors for Structural Monitoring in Power Transformers

Autores
Monteiro, CS; Rodrigues, AV; Viveiros, D; Linhares, C; Mendes, H; Silva, SO; Marques, PVS; Tavares, SMO; Frazao, O;

Publicação
Sensors

Abstract
Power transformers are central elements of power transmission systems and their deterioration can lead to system failures, causing major disruptions in service. Catastrophic failures can occur, posing major environmental hazards due to fires, explosions, or oil spillage. Early fault detection can be accomplished or estimated using electrical sensors or a chemical analysis of oil or gas samples. Conventional methods are incapable of real-time measurements with a low electrical noise due to time-consuming analyses or susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. Optical fiber sensors, passive elements that are immune to electromagnetic noise, are capable of structural monitoring by being enclosed in power transformers. In this work, optical fiber sensors embedded in 3D printed structures are studied for vibration monitoring. The fiber sensor is encapsulated between two pressboard spacers, simulating the conditions inside the power transformer, and characterized for vibrations with frequencies between 10 and 800 Hz, with a constant acceleration of 10 m/s2. Thermal aging and electrical tests are also accomplished, aiming to study the oil compatibility of the 3D printed structure. The results reported in this work suggest that structural monitoring in power transformers can be achieved using optical fiber sensors, prospecting real-time monitoring.

2020

Tuning of Fiber Optic Surface Reflectivity through Graphene Oxide-Based Layer-by-Layer Film Coatings

Autores
Monteiro, CS; Raposo, M; Ribeiro, PA; Silva, SO; Frazao, O;

Publicação
Photonics

Abstract
The use of graphene oxide-based coatings on optical fibers are investigated, aiming to tune the reflectivity of optical fiber surfaces for use in precision sensing devices. Graphene oxide (GO) layers are successfully deposited onto optical fiber ends, either in cleaved or hollow microspheres, by mounting combined bilayers of polyethylenimine (PEI) and GO layers using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique. The reflectivity of optical fibers coated with graphene oxide layers is investigated for the telecom region allowing to both monitor layer growth kinetics and cavity characterization. Tunable reflective surfaces are successfully attained in both cleaved optical fibers and hollow microsphere fiber-based sensors by simply coating them with PEI/GO layers through the LbL film technique.

2020

Magnetostriction assessment with strain gauges and fiber bragg gratings

Autores
Linhares, CC; Santo, JE; Teixeira, RR; Coutinho, CP; Tavares, SMO; Pinto, M; Costa, JS; Mendes, H; Monteiro, CS; Rodrigues, AV; Frazão, O;

Publicação
EAI Endorsed Transactions on Energy Web

Abstract
Power transformers have an imperative role in the future developments of the electrical grids. Treated as crucial assets for transportation and distribution of electrical energy, transformers are currently being studied regarding to the integration of technologies aiming to diagnose problems and monitoring data of electrical power grid. Furthermore, environmental noise pollution has gained importance, especially in active units of the power grid, located near consumers, such as transformers. Transformers noise can be classified according to its source: core, windings and cooling. This study addresses an experimental characterization of one of the main causes of transformers core noise-magnetostriction of electrical steel. An evaluation of magnetostriction properties of electrical steel, including resistive strain gauges and Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) measurements with an Epstein frame, are presented and discussed. The magnetic flux density influence on hysteretic strain behavior of magnetostriction was evaluated, as well as the effect of a clamping load on core joints. Nowadays, optical interrogators for Bragg gratings have a high acquisition frequencies and wavelength sensitivity when compared to former optical interrogation systems, allowing to evaluate physical phenomena without electromagnetic interference and with equivalent resolution of conventional strain gauges. © 2019 Cassiano C. Linhares et al.