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Publicações

Publicações por CTM

2024

An interpretable machine learning system for colorectal cancer diagnosis from pathology slides

Autores
Neto, PC; Montezuma, D; Oliveira, SP; Oliveira, D; Fraga, J; Monteiro, A; Monteiro, J; Ribeiro, L; Gonçalves, S; Reinhard, S; Zlobec, I; Pinto, IM; Cardoso, JS;

Publicação
NPJ PRECISION ONCOLOGY

Abstract
Considering the profound transformation affecting pathology practice, we aimed to develop a scalable artificial intelligence (AI) system to diagnose colorectal cancer from whole-slide images (WSI). For this, we propose a deep learning (DL) system that learns from weak labels, a sampling strategy that reduces the number of training samples by a factor of six without compromising performance, an approach to leverage a small subset of fully annotated samples, and a prototype with explainable predictions, active learning features and parallelisation. Noting some problems in the literature, this study is conducted with one of the largest WSI colorectal samples dataset with approximately 10,500 WSIs. Of these samples, 900 are testing samples. Furthermore, the robustness of the proposed method is assessed with two additional external datasets (TCGA and PAIP) and a dataset of samples collected directly from the proposed prototype. Our proposed method predicts, for the patch-based tiles, a class based on the severity of the dysplasia and uses that information to classify the whole slide. It is trained with an interpretable mixed-supervision scheme to leverage the domain knowledge introduced by pathologists through spatial annotations. The mixed-supervision scheme allowed for an intelligent sampling strategy effectively evaluated in several different scenarios without compromising the performance. On the internal dataset, the method shows an accuracy of 93.44% and a sensitivity between positive (low-grade and high-grade dysplasia) and non-neoplastic samples of 0.996. On the external test samples varied with TCGA being the most challenging dataset with an overall accuracy of 84.91% and a sensitivity of 0.996.

2024

Optimized reconstruction of the absorption spectra of kidney tissues from the spectra of tissue components using the least squares method

Autores
Pinheiro, MR; Fernandes, LE; Carneiro, IC; Carvalho, SD; Henrique, RM; Tuchin, VV; Oliveira, HP; Oliveira, LM;

Publicação
JOURNAL OF BIOPHOTONICS

Abstract
With the objective of developing new methods to acquire diagnostic information, the reconstruction of the broadband absorption coefficient spectra (mu a[lambda]) of healthy and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma kidney tissues was performed. By performing a weighted sum of the absorption spectra of proteins, DNA, oxygenated, and deoxygenated hemoglobin, lipids, water, melanin, and lipofuscin, it was possible to obtain a good match of the experimental mu a(lambda) of both kidney conditions. The weights used in those reconstructions were estimated using the least squares method, and assuming a total water content of 77% in both kidney tissues, it was possible to calculate the concentrations of the other tissue components. It has been shown that with the development of cancer, the concentrations of proteins, DNA, oxygenated hemoglobin, lipids, and lipofuscin increase, and the concentration of melanin decreases. Future studies based on minimally invasive spectral measurements will allow cancer diagnosis using the proposed approach.

2024

On the feasibility of Vis–NIR spectroscopy and machine learning for real time SARS-CoV-2 detection

Autores
Coelho, BFO; Nunes, SLP; de França, CA; Costa, DdS; do Carmo, RF; Prates, RM; Filho, EFS; Ramos, RP;

Publicação
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy

Abstract

2024

Feature Extraction from EEG signals for detection of Parkinsons Disease

Autores
Souza, C; Viana, G; Coelho, B; Massaranduba, AB; Ramos, R;

Publicação
Anais do XVI Congresso Brasileiro de Inteligência Computacional

Abstract
The Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a medical tool that captures, in a non-invasive way, electrical signals from the brain activities performed by neurons. EEG signals have been the target of study as a biomarker of Parkinsons disease (PD), where several methods of analysis are applied. The present work aims to evaluate features extracted from EEG signals, through methodologies such as HOS, Haralick descriptors, and Fractal Features, as new biomarkers for PD identification. Data from 50 individuals, available at the Open Neuro repository, who underwent an attentional cognitive task were analyzed. RF and SVM algorithms were employed for the classification of the extracted features. The best accuracy achieved was 79.49% in differentiating between Parkinsons subjects and control subjects using Haralick descriptors and RF classifier, suggesting that these features can identify activations in brain areas caused by dopaminergic medication.

2023

Trajectory-Aware Rate Adaptation for Flying Networks

Autores
Queirós, R; Ruela, J; Fontes, H; Campos, R;

Publicação
Simulation Tools and Techniques - 15th EAI International Conference, SIMUtools 2023, Seville, Spain, December 14-15, 2023, Proceedings

Abstract

2023

From a Visual Scene to a Virtual Representation: A Cross-Domain Review

Autores
Pereira, A; Carvalho, P; Pereira, N; Viana, P; Corte-Real, L;

Publicação
IEEE ACCESS

Abstract
The widespread use of smartphones and other low-cost equipment as recording devices, the massive growth in bandwidth, and the ever-growing demand for new applications with enhanced capabilities, made visual data a must in several scenarios, including surveillance, sports, retail, entertainment, and intelligent vehicles. Despite significant advances in analyzing and extracting data from images and video, there is a lack of solutions able to analyze and semantically describe the information in the visual scene so that it can be efficiently used and repurposed. Scientific contributions have focused on individual aspects or addressing specific problems and application areas, and no cross-domain solution is available to implement a complete system that enables information passing between cross-cutting algorithms. This paper analyses the problem from an end-to-end perspective, i.e., from the visual scene analysis to the representation of information in a virtual environment, including how the extracted data can be described and stored. A simple processing pipeline is introduced to set up a structure for discussing challenges and opportunities in different steps of the entire process, allowing to identify current gaps in the literature. The work reviews various technologies specifically from the perspective of their applicability to an end-to-end pipeline for scene analysis and synthesis, along with an extensive analysis of datasets for relevant tasks.

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