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Publicações

2020

Temperature Stability and Spectral Tuning of Long Period Fiber Gratings Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Direct Writing

Autores
Viveiros, D; de Almeida, JMMM; Coelho, L; Vasconcelos, H; Maia, JM; Amorim, VA; Jorge, PAS; Marques, PVS;

Publicação
Sensors

Abstract
Long period fiber gratings (LPFGs) were fabricated in a standard single mode fiber (SMF-28e) through femtosecond (fs) laser direct writing. LPFGs with longer and shorter periods were fabricated, which allows coupling from the fundamental core mode to lower and higher order asymmetric cladding modes (LP1,6 and LP1,12, respectively). For the grating periods of 182.7 and 192.5 µm, it was verified that the LP1,12 mode exhibits a TAP at approximately 1380 and 1448 nm in air and water, respectively. Characterization of the LPFGs subjected to high-temperature thermal treatment was accomplished. Fine-tuning of the resonance band’s position and thermal stability up to 600 °C was shown. The temperature sensitivity was characterized for the gratings with different periods and for different temperature ranges. A maximum sensitivity of -180.73, and 179.29 pm/°C was obtained for the two resonances of the 182.7 µm TAP LPFG, in the range between 250 and 600 °C.

2020

Preliminary assessment on the detection of putrescine using long period fiber gratings coated with titanium dioxide and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)

Autores
Vasconcelos, H; Almeida, JMMM; Saraiva, C; Viveiros, D; Jorge, PAS; Coelho, L;

Publicação
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

Abstract
Biogenic amines, such as putrescine are potential indicators of food storage condition and deterioration. The real time measurement of their concentration in food may become an important method of food control. It was found that putrescine diffuses through a thin layer made from a solution of Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA) and maleic anhydride. Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) is a common non-chlorinated vinyl capable to adsorb specific analytes as putrescine which upon diffusion, reversibly binds to the maleic anhydride causing the polymer swelling resulting in spectral changes from the optical point of view. Long Period Fiber Gratings coated with 30 nm titanium dioxide, a high refractive index material used to increase the intrinsic sensitivity to the external refractive index, were overcoated with a thin layer of maleic anhydride doped Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate). When exposed to solutions containing small concentrations of putrescine the resonant band corresponding to the LP1,6 cladding mode was found to move to shorter wavelengths. The observed blue shift corresponds to the increasing concentration of putrescine in the fiber sensor structure. Further work is being carried out to improve the sensitivity and the limit of detection of the sensing system as well as to increase range of operation, which is presently limited to 0.3 to 0.5 M. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

2019

Spectral Tuning of Long Period Fiber Gratings Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Micromachining through Thermal Annealing

Autores
Viveiros, D; Almeida, JMMMd; Coelho, L; Vasconcelos, H; Amorim, VA; Maia, JM; Jorge, PAS;

Publicação
Proceedings

Abstract
A femtosecond laser direct writing system was developed to explore the fabrication of long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs) in SMF28 fibers. The LPFGs, showing the mode LP1,6 at 1500 nm, were exposed to high-temperature annealing up to 950 °C. Modifications in the refractive index (RI) modulation are observed through a blue-shift in the LPFG attenuation bands and above 850 °C, the mode LP1,7 appear at 1600 nm. The wavelength sensitivity to external RI from 1.300 to 1.452 was estimated for both modes before and after annealing. Greater sensitivity was found for the higher order mode in the entire range reaching 2400 nm/RIU around 1.440.

2019

Mach-Zehnder Interferometers Based on Long Period Fiber Grating Coated with Titanium Dioxide for Refractive Index Sensing

Autores
Soares Guedes Vasconcelos, HCASG; Marques Martins de Almeida, JMMM; Teixeira Saraiva, CMT; da Silva Jorge, PAD; Costa Coelho, LCC;

Publicação
Journal of Lightwave Technology

Abstract

2019

Preliminary Study for Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide Using a Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Membrane

Autores
Vasconcelos, H; Almeida, JMMMd; Saraiva, C; Jorge, PAS; Coelho, L;

Publicação
Proceedings

Abstract
High concentration of biogenic amines (BA) is an indicator of deterioration of food and the determination of their concentration is an important method of food control. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a side product of the degradation of BAs by certain enzymes. It is presented an experimental technique grounded on chemiluminescence to measure small quantities of H2O2 with concentrations as low as 0.01%w/w up to 0.08%w/w. Luminol and cobalt hydroxide are added to hydroxyethyl cellulose to obtain an active membrane which will react with the sampling solution and the amount of total light emission is directly related to the H2O2 concentration.