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Publications

Publications by CRIIS

2020

Honeycomb map: A bioinspired topological map for indoor search and rescue unmanned aerial vehicles

Authors
da Rosa, R; Wehrmeister, MA; Brito, T; Lima, JL; Pinheiro Nunes Pereira, AIPN;

Publication
Sensors (Switzerland)

Abstract
The use of robots to map disaster-stricken environments can prevent rescuers from being harmed when exploring an unknown space. In addition, mapping a multi-robot environment can help these teams plan their actions with prior knowledge. The present work proposes the use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the construction of a topological map inspired by the way that bees build their hives. A UAV can map a honeycomb only if it is adjacent to a known one. Different metrics to choose the honeycomb to be explored were applied. At the same time, as UAVs scan honeycomb adjacencies, RGB-D and thermal sensors capture other data types, and then generate a 3D view of the space and images of spaces where there may be fire spots, respectively. Simulations in different environments showed that the choice of metric and variation in the number of UAVs influence the number of performed displacements in the environment, consequently affecting exploration time and energy use. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

2020

Path Planning Aware of Robot’s Center of Mass for Steep Slope Vineyards

Authors
Santos, L; Santos, F; Mendes, J; Costa, P; Lima, J; Reis, R; Shinde, P;

Publication
Robotica

Abstract
SummarySteep slope vineyards are a complex scenario for the development of ground robots. Planning a safe robot trajectory is one of the biggest challenges in this scenario, characterized by irregular surfaces and strong slopes (more than 35°). Moving the robot through a pile of stones, spots with high slope or/and with wrong robot yaw may result in an abrupt fall of the robot, damaging the equipment and centenary vines, and sometimes imposing injuries to humans. This paper presents a novel approach for path planning aware of center of mass of the robot for application in sloppy terrains. Agricultural robotic path planning (AgRobPP) is a framework that considers the A* algorithm by expanding inner functions to deal with three main inputs: multi-layer occupation grid map, altitude map and robot’s center of mass. This multi-layer grid map is updated by obstacles taking into account the terrain slope and maximum robot posture. AgRobPP is also extended with algorithms for local trajectory replanning during the execution of a trajectory that is blocked by the presence of an obstacle, always assuring the safety of the re-planned path. AgRobPP has a novel PointCloud translator algorithm called PointCloud to grid map and digital elevation model (PC2GD), which extracts the occupation grid map and digital elevation model from a PointCloud. This can be used in AgRobPP core algorithms and farm management intelligent systems as well. AgRobPP algorithms demonstrate a great performance with the real data acquired from AgRob V16, a robotic platform developed for autonomous navigation in steep slope vineyards.

2020

Wireless Sensor Network for Ignitions Detection: An IoT approach

Authors
Brito, T; Pereira, AI; Lima, J; Valente, A;

Publication
Electronics

Abstract
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) can be used to acquire environmental variables useful for decision-making, such as agriculture and forestry. Installing a WSN on the forest will allow the acquisition of ecological variables of high importance on risk analysis and fire detection. The presented paper addresses two types of WSN developed modules that can be used on the forest to detect fire ignitions using LoRaWAN to establish the communication between the nodes and a central system. The collaboration between these modules generate a heterogeneous WSN; for this reason, both are designed to complement each other. The first module, the HTW, has sensors that acquire data on a wide scale in the target region, such as air temperature and humidity, solar radiation, barometric pressure, among others (can be expanded). The second, the 5FTH, has a set of sensors with point data acquisition, such as flame ignition, humidity, and temperature. To test HTW and 5FTH, a LoRaWAN communication based on the Lorix One gateway is used, demonstrating the acquisition and transmission of forest data (simulation and real cases). Even in internal or external environments, these results allow validating the developed modules. Therefore, they can assist authorities in fighting wildfire and forest surveillance systems in decision-making.

2020

Using a Collaborative Robot to the Upper Limb Rehabilitation

Authors
de Azevedo Fernandes, L; Lima, JL; Leitão, P; Nakano, AY;

Publication
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing

Abstract
Rehabilitation is a relevant process for the recovery from dysfunctions and improves the realization of patient’s Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). Robotic systems are considered an important field within the development of physical rehabilitation, thus allowing the collection of several data, besides performing exercises with intensity and repeatedly. This paper addresses the use of a collaborative robot applied in the rehabilitation field to help the physiotherapy of upper limb of patients, specifically shoulder. To perform the movements with any patient the system must learn to behave to each of them. In this sense, the Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm makes the system robust and independent of the path of motion. To test this approach, it is proposed a simulation with a UR3 robot implemented in V-REP platform. The main control variable is the resistance force that the robot is able to do against the movement performed by the human arm. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2020

Using Pre-Computed Knowledge for Goal Allocation in Multi-Agent Planning

Authors
Luis, N; Pereira, T; Fernandez, S; Moreira, A; Borrajo, D; Veloso, M;

Publication
Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems: Theory and Applications

Abstract
Many real-world robotic scenarios require performing task planning to decide courses of actions to be executed by (possibly heterogeneous) robots. A classical centralized planning approach has to find a solution inside a search space that contains every possible combination of robots and goals. This leads to inefficient solutions that do not scale well. Multi-Agent Planning (MAP) provides a new way to solve this kind of tasks efficiently. Previous works on MAP have proposed to factorize the problem to decrease the planning effort i.e. dividing the goals among the agents (robots). However, these techniques do not scale when the number of agents and goals grow. Also, in most real world scenarios with big maps, goals might not be reached by every robot so it has a computational cost associated. In this paper we propose a combination of robotics and planning techniques to alleviate and boost the computation of the goal assignment process. We use Actuation Maps (AMs). Given a map, AMs can determine the regions each agent can actuate on. Thus, specific information can be extracted to know which goals can be tackled by each agent, as well as cheaply estimating the cost of using each agent to achieve every goal. Experiments show that when information extracted from AMs is provided to a multi-agent planning algorithm, the goal assignment is significantly faster, speeding-up the planning process considerably. Experiments also show that this approach greatly outperforms classical centralized planning. © 2019, The Author(s).

2020

Optimal automatic path planner and design for high redundancy robotic systems

Authors
Tavares, P; Marques, D; Malaca, P; Veiga, G; Costa, P; Moreira, AP;

Publication
INDUSTRIAL ROBOT-THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ROBOTICS RESEARCH AND APPLICATION

Abstract
Purpose In the vast majority of the individual robot installations, the robot arm is just one piece of a complex puzzle of components, such as grippers, jigs or external axis, that together compose an industrial robotic cell. The success of such installations is very dependent not only on the selection of such components but also on the layout and design of the final robotic cell, which are the main tasks of the system integrators. Consequently, successful robot installations are often empirical tasks owing to the high number of experimental combinations that could lead to exhaustive and time-consuming testing approaches. Design/methodology/approach A newly developed optimized technique to deal with automatic planning and design of robotic systems is proposed and tested in this paper. Findings The application of a genetic-based algorithm achieved optimal results in short time frames and improved the design of robotic work cells. Here, the authors show that a multi-layer optimization approach, which can be validated using a robotic tool, is able to help with the design of robotic systems. Originality/value To date, robotic solutions lack flexibility to cope with the demanding industrial environments. The results presented here formalize a new flexible and modular approach, which can provide optimal solutions throughout the different stages of design and execution control of any work cell.

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