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About

About

I am graduated in Physics/Applied Mathematics in 1993 and with a master degree in Mechanical Engineeringat in 1996, at the U Porto. The PhD was in Mechanical Engineering, in the sub-area of Biomechanics, in 2006, and also with a Postgraduate course in Physical Properties of Materials, in 2003, at the U Aveiro. I have been doing research for about 15 years, in several research centers, with more than 70 publications. I have been an universitary professor for about 20 years and nowadays, I am Associate Professor at Ispgaya.

My main topics of interest are: biomechanics; biosensors; fiber optic sensors, applied photonics; numerical simulation; experimental technics for measuring mechanical and physical properties; characterization of biomaterials; bone remodelling process.

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Publications

2016

Influence of different mechanical stimuli in a multi-scale mechanobiological isotropic model for bone remodelling

Authors
Mercuri, EGF; Daniel, AL; Hecke, MB; Carvalho, L;

Publication
MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS

Abstract
This work represents a study of a mathematical model that describes the biological response to different mechanical stimuli in a cellular dynamics model for bone remodelling. The biological system discussed herein consists of three specialised cellular types, responsive osteoblasts, active osteoblasts and osteoclasts, three types of signalling molecules, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-b ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the parathyroid hormone (PTH). Three proposals for mechanical stimuli were tested: strain energy density (SED), hydrostatic and deviatoric parts of SED. The model was tested in a two-dimensional geometry of a standard human femur. The spatial discretization was performed by the finite element method while the temporal evolution of the variables was calculated by the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The obtained results represent the temporal evolution of the apparent density distribution and the mean apparent density and thickness for the cortical bone after 600 days of remodelling simulation. The main contributions of this paper are the coupling of mechanical and biological models and the exploration of how the different mechanical stimuli affect the cellular activity in different types of physical activities. The results revealed that hydrostatic SED stimulus was able to form more cortical bone than deviatoric SED and total SED stimuli. The computational model confirms how different mechanical stimuli can impact in the balance of bone homeostasis.

2015

Evaluation of the performance of orthodontic devices using FBG sensors

Authors
Carvalho, L; Roriz, P; Frazao, O; Marques, MB;

Publication
23RD CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION FOR OPTICS (ICO 23)

Abstract
Cross-bite, as a malocclusion effect, is defined as a transversal changing of the upper dental arch, in relation to the lower arch, and may be classified as skeletal, dental or functional. As a consequence, the expansion of maxilla is an effective clinical treatment used to correct transversal maxillary discrepancy. The maxillary expansion is an ancient method used in orthodontics, for the correction of the maxillary athresia with posterior crossbite, through the opening of the midpalatal suture (disjunction), using orthodontic-orthopaedic devices. Same controversial discussion arises among the clinicians, about the effects of each orthodontic devices as also about the technique to be employed. The objective of this study was to compare the strain field induced by two different orthodontic devices, named disjunctor with and without a connecting bar, in an acrylic model jaw, using fiber Bragg grating sensors to measure the strain patterns. The orthodontic device disjunctor with the bar, in general, transmits higher forces and strain to teeth and maxillae, than with the disjunctor without bar. It was verified that the strain patterns were not symmetric between the left and the right sides as also between the posterior and anterior regions of the maxillae. For the two devices is also found that in addition a displacement in the horizontal plane, particularly in posterior teeth, also occurs a rotation corresponding to a vestibularization of the posterior teeth and their alveolar processes.

2015

New Trends in Dental Biomechanics with Photonics Technologies

Authors
Carvalho, L; Roriz, P; Simoes, J; Frazao, O;

Publication
APPLIED SCIENCES-BASEL

Abstract
Engineering techniques used to evaluate strain-stress fields, materials' mechanical properties, and load transfer mechanisms, among others, are useful tools in the study of biomechanical applications. These engineering tools, as experimental and numerical ones, were imported to biomechanics, in particular in dental biomechanics, a few decades ago. Several experimental techniques have been used in dental biomechanics, like photoelasticity, ESPI (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry), strain gages, and other kinds of transducers. However, these techniques have some limitations. For instance, photoelasticity and ESPI give the overall field pattern of the strain, showing the stress-strain concentration points. These methods cannot give an accurate measurement at all points. On the contrary, strain gages can be used to perform local measurements. However, as they use electrical resistances, their use is limited to perform in vivo measurements. Optical fiber sensors have already been used in dentistry, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and in dental biomechanics studies. Lasers have also been used in clinical dentistry for a few decades. Other optical technologies, like optical coherence tomography (OCT), became suitable for dental practice and nowadays it is perhaps one that has had more development in dentristry, along with lasers.

2014

Fabry-Perot Cavity Hydrostatic Pressure Sensors

Authors
Carvalho, L; Roriz, P; Simoes, J; Santos, JL; Frazao, O;

Publication
23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL FIBRE SENSORS

Abstract
Interferometric fiber optic based sensors, namely those based on the Fabry-Perot (F-P) configuration seem very attractive for biomechanical and biomedical applications. The present study is focused on the proof of concept of two developed FP based sensors, for high and low pressure measurements of fluids. For low pressure sensor, it was used a polymeric diaphragm in a microstrutured fiber. It was obtained a good agreement between wavelength shift and the pressure, for the two tested sensors.

2014

From conventional sensors to fibre optic sensors for strain and force measurements in biomechanics applications: A review

Authors
Roriz, P; Carvalho, L; Frazao, O; Santos, JL; Simoes, JA;

Publication
JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS

Abstract
In vivo measurement, not only in animals but also in humans, is a demanding task and is the ultimate goal in experimental biomechanics. For that purpose, measurements in vivo must be performed, under physiological conditions, to obtain a database and contribute for the development of analytical models, used to describe human biomechanics. The knowledge and control of the mechanisms involved in biomechanics will allow the optimization of the performance in different topics like in clinical procedures and rehabilitation, medical devices and sports, among others. Strain gages were first applied to bone in a live animal in 40's and in 80's for the first time were applied fibre optic sensors to perform in vivo measurements of Achilles tendon forces in man. Fibre optic sensors proven to have advantages compare to conventional sensors and a great potential for biomechanical and biomedical applications. Compared to them, they are smaller, easier to implement minimally invasive, with lower risk of infection, highly accurate, well correlated, inexpensive and multiplexable. The aim of this review article is to give an overview about the evolution of the experimental techniques applied in biomechanics, from conventional to fibre optic sensors. In the next sections the most relevant contributions of these sensors, for strain and force in biomechanical applications, will be presented. Emphasis was given to report of in vivo experiments and clinical applications.