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Publications

2017

Phase-interrogated SPR sensing structures based on tapered and tip optrode optical fiber configurations with bimetallic layers

Authors
Moayyed, H; Leite, IT; Coelho, L; Santos, JL; Viegas, D;

Publication
MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
This work reports the theoretical investigation of optical fiber surface plasmon resonance sensors incorporating bimetallic layer combinations. Different metals like silver, gold, copper, and aluminum are considered to investigate the refractometric sensing properties of tapered and tip optrode phase-interrogated optical fiber plasmonic sensor structures. It is shown that the gold-silver combination, coupled to a tip optrode layout, is capable of maximizing the resolution and operation range of these sensing structures for environmental refractive index measurement.

2016

Analysis of a Plasmonic Based Optical Fiber Optrode With Phase Interrogation

Authors
Moayyed, H; Leite, IT; Coelho, L; Santos, JL; Viegas, D;

Publication
PHOTONIC SENSORS

Abstract
Optical fiber optrodes are attractive sensing devices due to their ability to perform point measurement in remote locations. Mostly, they are oriented to biochemical sensing, quite often supported by fluorescent and spectroscopic techniques, but with the refractometric approach considered as well when the objective is of high measurement performance, particularly when the focus is on enhancing the measurand resolution. In this work, we address this subject, proposing and analyzing the characteristics of a fiber optic optrode relying on plasmonic interaction. A linearly tapered optical fiber tip is covered by a double overlay: the inner one - a silver thin film and over it a dielectric layer, with this combination allowing to achieve, at a specific wavelength range, surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) interaction sensitive to the refractive index of the surrounding medium. Typically, the interrogation of the SPR sensing structures is performed, considering spectroscopic techniques, but in principle, a far better performance can be obtained, considering the reading of the phase of the light at a specific wavelength located within the spectral plasmonic resonance. This is the approach which is studied here in the context of the proposed optical fiber optrode configuration. The analysis performed shows the combination of a silver inner layer with a dielectric titanium oxide layer with tuned thicknesses enables sensitive phase reading and allows the operation of the fiber optic optrode sensor in the third telecommunication wavelength window.

2015

Phase Interrogated Plasmonic Optical Fiber Optrode with Bimetallic Layers

Authors
Moayyed, H; Leite, IT; Coelho, L; Santos, JL; Viegas, D;

Publication
24TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL FIBRE SENSORS

Abstract
Optical fiber optrodes are attractive sensing devices due to their ability to perform point measurement in remote locations. Mostly, they are oriented to biochemical sensing, quite often relying on fluorescent and spectroscopic techniques, but with the refractometric approach being also considered when the objective is high measurement performance, particularly when focusing on measurand resolution. In this work, we address this subject proposing and theoretically analyzing the characteristics of a fiber optic optrode relying on plasmonic interaction. The optrode structure is a fiber optic tapered tip layout incorporating a lateral bimetallic layer (silver + gold) and operating in reflection.

2015

Multiplexing of Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing Devices on Etched Single-Mode Fiber

Authors
Costa Coelho, LCC; Marques Martins de Almeida, JMMM; Moayyed, H; Santos, JL; Viegas, D;

Publication
JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
It is proposed the multiplexing of optical fiber-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors deployed in a ladder topology, addressed in wavelength by combining each sensor with specific fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and considering intensity interrogation. In each branch of the fiber layout, the FBGs are located after the sensor and the peak optical power reflected by the FBGs is a function of the relative spectral position between the SPR sensor and the FBG resonances, with the former dependent on the refractive index of the surrounding medium. The concept is tested for the multiplexing of two SPR sensors fabricated in an etched region of a single-mode fiber showing intrinsic refractive index sensitivity up to 5000 nm/RIU, which translates into a sensitivity of similar to 829 dB/RIU from the interrogation approach considered. The obtained refractive index resolution is in the order of 10(-4) RIU, and the crosstalk level between the sensors was found negligible.

2015

Theoretical Study of Phase-Interrogated Surface Plasmon Resonance Based on Optical Fiber Sensors with Metallic and Oxide Layers

Authors
Moayyed, H; Leite, IT; Coelho, L; Santos, JL; Viegas, D;

Publication
PLASMONICS

Abstract
This work reports the theoretical investigation of optical fiber surface plasmon resonance sensors incorporating an internal metallic layer of silver covered with an oxide layer. This research is supported by the application of an effective analytical model combining geometrical optics with the transfer matrix theory for stratified optical media. Different oxide materials like titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, and aluminum oxide are considered aiming to achieve increased/enhanced sensitivity to refractive index variations of the external medium, particularly when addressing phase interrogation. It is shown that the combination of a 50-nm thickness silver inner layer with a dielectric titanium oxide layer of a specific thickness enables high-performance phase sensitivity reading and is compatible with tailoring the sensor working region to the third telecommunication wavelength window around 1550 nm.