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Details

  • Name

    Fernando Fontes
  • Cluster

    Computer Science
  • Role

    External Research Collaborator
  • Since

    01st April 2019
Publications

2022

L0 and L1 Guidance and Path-Following Control for Airborne Wind Energy Systems

Authors
Fernandes, MCRM; Vinha, S; Paiva, LT; Fontes, FACC;

Publication
Energies

Abstract
For an efficient and reliable operation of an Airborne Wind Energy System, it is widely accepted that the kite should follow a pre-defined optimized path. In this article, we address the problem of designing a trajectory controller so that such path is closely followed. The path-following controllers investigated are based on a well-known nonlinear guidance logic termed L1 and on a proposed modification of it, which we termed L0. We have developed and implemented both L0 and L1 controllers for an AWES. The two controllers have an easy implementation with an explicit expression for the control law based on the cross-track error, on the heading angle relative to the path, and on a single parameter L (L0 or L1, depending on each controller) that we are able to tune. The L0 controller has an even easier implementation since the explicit control law can be used without the need to switch controllers. Since the switching of controllers might jeopardize stability, the L0 controller has an important theoretical advantage in being able to guarantee stability on a larger domain of attraction.The simulation study shows that both nonlinear guidance logic controllers exhibit appropriate performance when the L parameter is adequately tuned, with the L0 controller showing a better performance when measured in terms of the average cross-track error.

2021

Optimal Path and Path-Following Control in Airborne Wind Energy Systems

Authors
Fernandes, MCRM; Paiva, LT; Fontes, FACC;

Publication
Computational Methods in Applied Sciences

Abstract
An Airborne Wind Energy System (AWES) is a concept to convert wind energy into electricity, which comprises a tethered aircraft connected to a ground station. These systems are capable of harvesting high altitude winds, which are more frequent and more consistent. Among AWES, there are Pumping Kite Generators (PKG) that involve a rigid or flexible kite connected to a motor/generator placed on the ground through a light-weight tether. Such PKG produces electrical power in a cyclical two-phased motion with a traction phase and a retraction phase. During the traction phase, the aim is to maximize power production. This goal is achieved by controlling the kite such that it performs an almost crosswind motion, keeping a low elevation angle in order to maximize the tether tension. During the retraction phase, the tether tension force is minimized by steering the kite while the tether is reeled-in. Such strategy assures that the cyclical two-phased motion has a positive electrical balance at the end of the overall cycle. In a first stage, we solve an optimal control problem to compute the optimal plan for the kite trajectory during the traction phase, maximizing power production. Such trajectory is then used to define a time-independent geometrical path, which in turn is used as the reference path for the path-following control procedure that is developed in a second stage, and for which results are also presented. © 2021, The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2021

Irrigation Planning with Fine Meshes

Authors
Lopes, SO; Costa, MFP; Pereira, RMS; Malheiro, MT; Fontes, FACC;

Publication
Computational Methods in Applied Sciences

Abstract
In this work, we study a mathematical model for a smart irrigation system, formulated as an optimal control problem and discretized and transcribed into a nonlinear programming problem using a fine mesh. In order to solve the resulting optimization problem, one needs to use Optimization solvers. Hence, we implemented the proposed mathematical model in AMPL and solved it using the IPOPT solver on the NEOS server (https://neos-server.org/neos/index.html). We also tested the model creating several scenarios. The numerical results shows that the mathematical model produces qualitatively good responses. Moreover the execution times are made in few seconds. © 2021, The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2021

Modelling of smart irrigation with replan and redistribution algorithms

Authors
Pereira, R; Lopes, S; Costa, MF; Haie, N; Fontes, F;

Publication
Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

Abstract

2021

Cascade Control of the Ground Station Module of an Airborne Wind Energy System

Authors
Uppal, AA; Fernandes, MCRM; Vinha, S; Fontes, FACC;

Publication
ENERGIES

Abstract
An airborne wind energy system (AWES) can harvest stronger wind streams at higher altitudes which are not accessible to conventional wind turbines. The operation of AWES requires a controller for the tethered aircraft/kite module (KM), as well as a controller for the ground station module (GSM). The literature regarding the control of AWES mostly focuses on the trajectory tracking of the KM. However, an advanced control of the GSM is also key to the successful operation of an AWES. In this paper we propose a cascaded control strategy for the GSM of an AWES during the traction or power generation phase. The GSM comprises a winch and a three-phase induction machine (IM), which acts as a generator. In the outer control-loop, an integral sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm is designed to keep the winch velocity at the prescribed level. A detailed stability analysis is also presented for the existence of the SMC for the perturbed winch system. The rotor flux-based field oriented control (RFOC) of the IM constitutes the inner control-loop. Due to the sophisticated RFOC, the decoupled and instantaneous control of torque and rotor flux is made possible using decentralized proportional integral (PI) controllers. The unknown states required to design RFOC are estimated using a discrete time Kalman filter (DKF), which is based on the quasi-linear model of the IM. The designed GSM controller is integrated with an already developed KM, and the AWES is simulated using MATLAB and Simulink. The simulation study shows that the GSM control system exhibits appropriate performance even in the presence of the wind gusts, which account for the external disturbance.